Open Access iconOpen Access



Selfish Mining and Defending Strategies in the Bitcoin

Weijian Zhang1,*, Hao Wang2, Hao Hua3, Qirun Wang4

1 Network Security and Information Office, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China
2 Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210008, China
3 SKEMA Business School, Lille, 59777, France
4 University of Hertfordshire, Hertford, AL10 9EU, UK

* Corresponding Author: Weijian Zhang. Email: email

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2022, 34(3), 1861-1875.


As a kind of distributed, decentralized and peer-to-peer transmitted technology, blockchain technology has gradually changed people’s lifestyle. However, blockchain technology also faces many problems including selfish mining attack, which causes serious effects to the development of blockchain technology. Selfish mining is a kind of mining strategy where selfish miners increase their profit by selectively publishing hidden blocks. This paper builds the selfish mining model from the perspective of node state conversion and utilize the function extremum method to figure out the optimal profit of this model. Meanwhile, based on the experimental data of honest mining, the author conducts the simulation of selfish mining and discovers that selfish miners are able to acquire more revenue than honest miners when they account for more than 1/3 computing power of the whole system. Lastly, to defend the selfish mining attack, the author also summarizes the existing defending strategies and evaluates every kind of strategy briefly.


Cite This Article

W. Zhang, H. Wang, H. Hua and Q. Wang, "Selfish mining and defending strategies in the bitcoin," Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 34, no.3, pp. 1861–1875, 2022.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 826


  • 507


  • 0


Share Link