Open Access iconOpen Access



Heartbeat and Respiration Rate Prediction Using Combined Photoplethysmography and Ballisto Cardiography

Valarmathi Ramasamy1,*, Dhandapani Samiappan2, R. Ramesh3

1 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, St. Peter’s College of Engineering, Chennai, 600054, Tamilnadu, India
2 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Saveetha Engineering College, Chennai, 602104, Tamilnadu, India
3 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Tagore Engineering College, Chennai, 600127, Tamilnadu, India

* Corresponding Author: Valarmathi Ramasamy. Email: email

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2023, 36(2), 1365-1380.


Owing to the recent trends in remote health monitoring, real-time applications for measuring Heartbeat Rate and Respiration Rate (HARR) from video signals are growing rapidly. Photo Plethysmo Graphy (PPG) is a method that is operated by estimating the infinitesimal change in color of the human face, rigid motion of facial skin and head parts, etc. Ballisto Cardiography (BCG) is a nonsurgical tool for obtaining a graphical depiction of the human body’s heartbeat by inducing repetitive movements found in the heart pulses. The resilience against motion artifacts induced by luminance fluctuation and the patient’s mobility variation is the major difficulty faced while processing the real-time video signals. In this research, a video-based HARR measuring framework is proposed based on combined PPG and BCG. Here, the noise from the input video signals is removed by using an Adaptive Kalman filter (AKF). Three different algorithms are used for estimating the HARR from the noise-free input signals. Initially, the noise-free signals are subjected to Modified Adaptive Fourier Decomposition (MAFD) and then to Enhanced Hilbert vibration Decomposition (EHVD) and finally to Improved Variation mode Decomposition (IVMD) for attaining three various results of HARR. The obtained values are compared with each other and found that the EHVD is showing better results when compared with all the other methods.


Cite This Article

V. Ramasamy, D. Samiappan and R. Ramesh, "Heartbeat and respiration rate prediction using combined photoplethysmography and ballisto cardiography," Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 36, no.2, pp. 1365–1380, 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 845


  • 355


  • 0


Share Link