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Performance Evaluation of Three-Dimensional UWB Real-Time Locating Auto-Positioning System for Fire Rescue

Hang Yang1,2,3,*, Xunbo Li1, Witold Pedrycz2

1 School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China
2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 1H9, Canada
3 School of Information Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621000, China

* Corresponding Author: Hang Yang. Email:

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2023, 37(3), 3039-3058.


Fire rescue challenges and solutions have evolved from straightforward plane rescue to encompass 3D space due to the rise of high-rise city buildings. Hence, this study facilitates a system with quick and simplified on-site launching and generates real-time location data, enabling fire rescuers to arrive at the intended spot faster and correctly for effective and precise rescue. Auto-positioning with step-by-step instructions is proposed when launching the locating system, while no extra measuring instrument like Total Station (TS) is needed. Real-time location tracking is provided via a 3D space real-time locating system (RTLS) constructed using Ultra-wide Bandwidth technology (UWB), which requires electromagnetic waves to pass through concrete walls. A hybrid weighted least squares with a time difference of arrival (WLS/TDOA) positioning method is proposed to address real path-tracking issues in 3D space and to meet RTLS requirements for quick computing in real-world applications. The 3D WLS/TDOA algorithm is theoretically constructed with the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The computing complexity is reduced to the lower bound for embedded hardware to directly compute the time differential of the arriving signals using the time-to-digital converter (TDC). The results of the experiments show that the errors are controlled when the positioning algorithm is applied in various complicated situations to fulfill the requirements of engineering applications. The statistical analysis of the data reveals that the proposed UWB RTLS auto-positioning system can track target tags with an accuracy of 0.20 m.


Cite This Article

H. Yang, X. Li and W. Pedrycz, "Performance evaluation of three-dimensional uwb real-time locating auto-positioning system for fire rescue," Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 37, no.3, pp. 3039–3058, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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