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Overview of Strain Characterization in Relation to Serological and Molecular Detection of Citrus tristeza Closterovirus

Yasir Iftikhar1,*, Mazhar Abbas2, Mustansar Mubeen3, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye4,*, Faheema Bakhtawar1, Sonum Bashir1, Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Shabbir1
1 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan
2 Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan
3 State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
4 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan
* Corresponding Authors: Yasir Iftikhar. Email: yasir.iftikhar@uos.edu.pk; Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye. Email: zafarulhyegondal@yahoo.com

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2021.015508

Received 23 December 2020; Accepted 26 January 2021;


Tristeza is a devastating viral disease in all the citrus growing countries throughout the world and has killed millions of citrus trees in severely affected orchards. The citrus species grafted on sour orange rootstock are affected by this disease. Predominantly, the sweet orange, grapefruit and lime trees grafted on sour orange exhibit severe symptoms like quick decline, vein clearing, pin holing, bark scaling and degeneration leading to variable symptoms. Symptomatic expression of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in different hosts has been attributed to virus isolates which are from severe to mild. Different serological and molecular assays have been deployed to differentiate the strains of CTV. Citrus tristeza virus is diversified towards its strains on the basis of biological, serological and molecular characterization. Phenotypic expression is due to genetic alteration and different molecular basis have now been adopted for strain differentiation. This review will give a brief idea about the different CTV isolates, their characterization based on nucleic acid and serological assays. Different methods along with salient features for strain characterization has also been reviewed. This review will also open the new aspects towards formulation of management strategies through different detection techniques.


Citrus tristeza virus; symptomology; detection; serology; isolates and host range
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