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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Normalizing Flow-Based Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network for Unsupervised Defect Detection

    Lanyao Zhang1, Shichao Kan2, Yigang Cen3, Xiaoling Chen1, Linna Zhang1,*, Yansen Huang4,5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.2, pp. 1631-1648, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.046924

    Abstract Unsupervised methods based on density representation have shown their abilities in anomaly detection, but detection performance still needs to be improved. Specifically, approaches using normalizing flows can accurately evaluate sample distributions, mapping normal features to the normal distribution and anomalous features outside it. Consequently, this paper proposes a Normalizing Flow-based Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network (NF-BMR). It utilizes pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and normalizing flows to construct discriminative source and target domain feature spaces. Additionally, to better learn feature information in both domain spaces, we propose the Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network (BMR), which maps sample features to these two spaces… More > Graphic Abstract

    A Normalizing Flow-Based Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network for Unsupervised Defect Detection

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Advanced Optimized Anomaly Detection System for IoT Cyberattacks Using Artificial Intelligence

    Ali Hamid Farea1,*, Omar H. Alhazmi1, Kerem Kucuk2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.2, pp. 1525-1545, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.045794

    Abstract While emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) have many benefits, they also pose considerable security challenges that require innovative solutions, including those based on artificial intelligence (AI), given that these techniques are increasingly being used by malicious actors to compromise IoT systems. Although an ample body of research focusing on conventional AI methods exists, there is a paucity of studies related to advanced statistical and optimization approaches aimed at enhancing security measures. To contribute to this nascent research stream, a novel AI-driven security system denoted as “AI2AI” is presented in this work. AI2AI employs AI techniques to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Analysis of ARIMA and LSTM Model-Based Anomaly Detection for Unannotated Structural Health Monitoring Data in an Immersed Tunnel

    Qing Ai1,2, Hao Tian2,3,*, Hui Wang1,*, Qing Lang1, Xingchun Huang1, Xinghong Jiang4, Qiang Jing5

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.2, pp. 1797-1827, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.045251

    Abstract Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems have become a crucial tool for the operational management of long tunnels. For immersed tunnels exposed to both traffic loads and the effects of the marine environment, efficiently identifying abnormal conditions from the extensive unannotated SHM data presents a significant challenge. This study proposed a model-based approach for anomaly detection and conducted validation and comparative analysis of two distinct temporal predictive models using SHM data from a real immersed tunnel. Firstly, a dynamic predictive model-based anomaly detection method is proposed, which utilizes a rolling time window for modeling to achieve dynamic prediction. Leveraging the assumption… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Letter Recognition Reinvented: A Dual Approach with MLP Neural Network and Anomaly Detection

    Nesreen M. Alharbi*, Ahmed Hamza Osman, Arwa A. Mashat, Hasan J. Alyamani

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.48, No.1, pp. 175-198, 2024, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.041044

    Abstract Recent years have witnessed significant advancements in the field of character recognition, thanks to the revolutionary introduction of machine learning techniques. Among various types of character recognition, offline Handwritten Character Recognition (HCR) is comparatively more challenging as it lacks temporal information, such as stroke count and direction, ink pressure, and unexpected handwriting variability. These issues contribute to a poor level of precision, which calls for the adoption of anomaly detection techniques to enhance Optical Character Recognition (OCR) schemes. Previous studies have not researched unsupervised anomaly detection using MLP for handwriting recognition. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach for enhanced… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Functional Pattern-Related Anomaly Detection Approach Collaborating Binary Segmentation with Finite State Machine

    Ming Wan1, Minglei Hao1, Jiawei Li1, Jiangyuan Yao2,*, Yan Song3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.3, pp. 3573-3592, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044857

    Abstract The process control-oriented threat, which can exploit OT (Operational Technology) vulnerabilities to forcibly insert abnormal control commands or status information, has become one of the most devastating cyber attacks in industrial automation control. To effectively detect this threat, this paper proposes one functional pattern-related anomaly detection approach, which skillfully collaborates the BinSeg (Binary Segmentation) algorithm with FSM (Finite State Machine) to identify anomalies between measuring data and control data. By detecting the change points of measuring data, the BinSeg algorithm is introduced to generate some initial sequence segments, which can be further classified and merged into different functional patterns due… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Memory-Guided Anomaly Detection Model with Contrastive Learning for Multivariate Time Series

    Wei Zhang1, Ping He2,*, Ting Li2, Fan Yang1, Ying Liu3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 1893-1910, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044253

    Abstract Some reconstruction-based anomaly detection models in multivariate time series have brought impressive performance advancements but suffer from weak generalization ability and a lack of anomaly identification. These limitations can result in the misjudgment of models, leading to a degradation in overall detection performance. This paper proposes a novel transformer-like anomaly detection model adopting a contrastive learning module and a memory block (CLME) to overcome the above limitations. The contrastive learning module tailored for time series data can learn the contextual relationships to generate temporal fine-grained representations. The memory block can record normal patterns of these representations through the utilization of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Intelligent Approach for Intrusion Detection in Industrial Control System

    Adel Alkhalil1,*, Abdulaziz Aljaloud1, Diaa Uliyan1, Mohammed Altameemi1, Magdy Abdelrhman2,3, Yaser Altameemi4, Aakash Ahmad5, Romany Fouad Mansour6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2049-2078, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044506

    Abstract Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are computer systems that gather and analyze real-time data, distributed control systems are specially designed automated control system that consists of geographically distributed control elements, and other smaller control systems such as programmable logic controllers are industrial solid-state computers that monitor inputs and outputs and make logic-based decisions. In recent years, there has been a lot of focus on the security of industrial control systems. Due to the advancement in information technologies, the risk of cyberattacks on industrial control system has been drastically increased. Because they are so inextricably tied to human life,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Solar Power Plant Network Packet-Based Anomaly Detection System for Cybersecurity

    Ju Hyeon Lee1, Jiho Shin2, Jung Taek Seo3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 757-779, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039461

    Abstract As energy-related problems continue to emerge, the need for stable energy supplies and issues regarding both environmental and safety require urgent consideration. Renewable energy is becoming increasingly important, with solar power accounting for the most significant proportion of renewables. As the scale and importance of solar energy have increased, cyber threats against solar power plants have also increased. So, we need an anomaly detection system that effectively detects cyber threats to solar power plants. However, as mentioned earlier, the existing solar power plant anomaly detection system monitors only operating information such as power generation, making it difficult to detect cyberattacks.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Wake-Up Security: Effective Security Improvement Mechanism for Low Power Internet of Things

    Sun-Woo Yun1, Na-Eun Park1, Il-Gu Lee1,2,*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 2897-2917, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.039940

    Abstract As time and space constraints decrease due to the development of wireless communication network technology, the scale and scope of cyberattacks targeting the Internet of Things (IoT) are increasing. However, it is difficult to apply high-performance security modules to the IoT owing to the limited battery, memory capacity, and data transmission performance depending on the size of the device. Conventional research has mainly reduced power consumption by lightening encryption algorithms. However, it is difficult to defend large-scale information systems and networks against advanced and intelligent attacks because of the problem of deteriorating security performance. In this study, we propose wake-up… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Anomaly Detection for Cloud Systems with Dynamic Spatiotemporal Learning

    Mingguang Yu1,2, Xia Zhang1,2,*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 1787-1806, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.038798

    Abstract As cloud system architectures evolve continuously, the interactions among distributed components in various roles become increasingly complex. This complexity makes it difficult to detect anomalies in cloud systems. The system status can no longer be determined through individual key performance indicators (KPIs) but through joint judgments based on synergistic relationships among distributed components. Furthermore, anomalies in modern cloud systems are usually not sudden crashes but rather gradual, chronic, localized failures or quality degradations in a weakly available state. Therefore, accurately modeling cloud systems and mining the hidden system state is crucial. To address this challenge, we propose an anomaly detection… More >

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