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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Orthopedic Diseases

    Xinlong Diao, Xiao Wang*, Junkang Qin, Qinmu Wu, Zhiqin He, Xinghong Fan

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.2, pp. 2617-2665, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047377

    Abstract In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has revolutionized people’s lives. AI has long made breakthrough progress in the field of surgery. However, the research on the application of AI in orthopedics is still in the exploratory stage. The paper first introduces the background of AI and orthopedic diseases, addresses the shortcomings of traditional methods in the detection of fractures and orthopedic diseases, draws out the advantages of deep learning and machine learning in image detection, and reviews the latest results of deep learning and machine learning applied to orthopedic image detection in recent years, describing the contributions, strengths and weaknesses,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Internet Use and Mental Health among Older Adults in China: Beneficial for Those Who Lack of Intergenerational Emotional Support or Suffering from Chronic Diseases?

    Yuxin Wang1,2,*, Jia Shi1,2

    International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, Vol.26, No.1, pp. 69-80, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ijmhp.2023.044641

    Abstract In the 21st century, the rapid growth of the Internet has presented a significant avenue for China to respond actively to the aging population and promote the “Healthy China” strategy in an orderly manner. This study uses panel data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) to empirically investigate the influence of Internet use on the mental health of older adults, particularly those who lack intergenerational emotional support and suffer from chronic diseases. This study employs a multi-period difference-in-differences (DID) method and a two-stage instrumental variable approach to address the endogenous problem. Results show that Internet use has… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    In vitro engineered models of neurodegenerative diseases

    ZEHRA GÜL MORÇIMEN1, ŞEYMA TAŞDEMIR2, AYLIN ŞENDEMIR3,4,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.48, No.1, pp. 79-96, 2024, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.045361

    Abstract Neurodegeneration is a catastrophic process that develops progressive damage leading to functional and structural loss of the cells of the nervous system and is among the biggest unavoidable problems of our age. Animal models do not reflect the pathophysiology observed in humans due to distinct differences between the neural pathways, gene expression patterns, neuronal plasticity, and other disease-related mechanisms in animals and humans. Classical in vitro cell culture models are also not sufficient for pre-clinical drug testing in reflecting the complex pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Today, modern, engineered techniques are applied to develop multicellular, intricate in vitro models and to… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review on the Application of Deep Learning Methods in Detection and Identification of Rice Diseases and Pests

    Xiaozhong Yu1,2,*, Jinhua Zheng1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.1, pp. 197-225, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.043943

    Abstract In rice production, the prevention and management of pests and diseases have always received special attention. Traditional methods require human experts, which is costly and time-consuming. Due to the complexity of the structure of rice diseases and pests, quickly and reliably recognizing and locating them is difficult. Recently, deep learning technology has been employed to detect and identify rice diseases and pests. This paper introduces common publicly available datasets; summarizes the applications on rice diseases and pests from the aspects of image recognition, object detection, image segmentation, attention mechanism, and few-shot learning methods according to the network structure differences; and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Work Review on Clinical Laboratory Data Utilizing Machine Learning Use-Case Methodology

    Uma Ramasamy*, Sundar Santhoshkumar

    Journal of Intelligent Medicine and Healthcare, Vol.2, pp. 1-14, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jimh.2023.046995

    Abstract More than 140 autoimmune diseases have distinct autoantibodies and symptoms, and it makes it challenging to construct an appropriate model using Machine Learning (ML) for autoimmune disease. Arthritis-related autoimmunity requires special attention. Although many conventional biomarkers for arthritis have been established, more biomarkers of arthritis autoimmune diseases remain to be identified. This review focuses on the research conducted using data obtained from clinical laboratory testing of real-time arthritis patients. The collected data is labelled the Arthritis Profile Data (APD) dataset. The APD dataset is the retrospective data with many missing values. We undertook a comprehensive APD dataset study comprising four… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimizing Deep Learning for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Lung Diseases: An Automated Method Combining Evolutionary Algorithm, Transfer Learning, and Model Compression

    Hassen Louati1,2, Ali Louati3,*, Elham Kariri3, Slim Bechikh2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.3, pp. 2519-2547, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.030806

    Abstract Recent developments in Computer Vision have presented novel opportunities to tackle complex healthcare issues, particularly in the field of lung disease diagnosis. One promising avenue involves the use of chest X-Rays, which are commonly utilized in radiology. To fully exploit their potential, researchers have suggested utilizing deep learning methods to construct computer-aided diagnostic systems. However, constructing and compressing these systems presents a significant challenge, as it relies heavily on the expertise of data scientists. To tackle this issue, we propose an automated approach that utilizes an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to optimize the design and compression of a convolutional neural network… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fusion of Region Extraction and Cross-Entropy SVM Models for Wheat Rust Diseases Classification

    Deepak Kumar1, Vinay Kukreja1, Ayush Dogra1,*, Bhawna Goyal2, Talal Taha Ali3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2097-2121, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044287

    Abstract Wheat rust diseases are one of the major types of fungal diseases that cause substantial yield quality losses of 15%–20% every year. The wheat rust diseases are identified either through experienced evaluators or computerassisted techniques. The experienced evaluators take time to identify the disease which is highly laborious and too costly. If wheat rust diseases are predicted at the development stages, then fungicides are sprayed earlier which helps to increase wheat yield quality. To solve the experienced evaluator issues, a combined region extraction and cross-entropy support vector machine (CE-SVM) model is proposed for wheat rust disease identification. In the proposed… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Curcumin in inflammatory bowel diseases: Cellular targets and molecular mechanisms

    AMYLLY SANUELLY DA PAZ MARTINS1,#, MARLA DE CERQUEIRA ALVES2,#, ORLANDO ROBERTO PIMENTEL DE ARAÚJO3, FABIANA OLIVEIRA DOS SANTOS CAMATARI4, MARÍLIA OLIVEIRA FONSECA GOULART1,3,5, FABIANA ANDRÉA MOURA2,6,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.11, pp. 2547-2566, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.043253

    Abstract

    Curcumin, a natural product, has exhibited promising effects in both animal models and clinical trials, interacting with a multitude of factors linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). These factors encompass cytokines, oxidative stress-associated enzymes, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Notably, curcumin has demonstrated therapeutic potential in animal models of colitis, wherein it exerts a negative regulatory influence on pivotal signaling pathways such as PI3/Akt, JAK/STAT, and β-catenin. Moreover, it inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes and co-stimulatory molecules (including RANKL, ICAM-1, CD205, CD256, TLR4, among others), while curbing immune cell chemotaxis, thereby attenuating the characteristic neutrophil infiltration observed in… More > Graphic Abstract

    Curcumin in inflammatory bowel diseases: Cellular targets and molecular mechanisms

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Mannose metabolism and immune regulation: Insights into its therapeutic potential in immunology-related diseases

    QINGPAN BU, PING LI, YUNFEI XIA, XINPEI WEI, KAI SONG*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.11, pp. 2535-2546, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.030781

    Abstract Mannose, a different isomer of the hydroxyl group at the C-2 position of glucose, shares the same transport carrier protein with glucose to enter cells and participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism. It affects cell growth, differentiation, and function and plays an active role in tumor immunity and inflammatory processes. This paper provides theoretical support for expanding the clinical applications of mannose by exploring its constitution, metabolic pathways, and role in regulating immune cell function and treating immunology-related diseases. More > Graphic Abstract

    Mannose metabolism and immune regulation: Insights into its therapeutic potential in immunology-related diseases

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    The bacterial small RNAs: The new biomarkers of oral microbiota-associated cancers and diseases

    MENGYING MAO1,2,3,#, TING DONG1,2,3,#, YANJING LIANG3,4, KEYONG YUAN1,2,3, QIAOQIAO JIN1,2,3, PENGFEI ZHANG1,2,3, ZHENGWEI HUANG1,2,3,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.10, pp. 2187-2193, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.042357

    Abstract The oral microbiota is a vital part of the human microbiota that functions in various physiological processes and is highly relevant to cancers and other diseases. With the alterations of host immune competence, the homeostatic balance existing between the oral microbiota and host may be disturbed and result in the development of diseases. Numerous observations have suggested that small RNAs are key regulators of bacterial pathogenesis and bacteria-host interactions. Further, bacterial small RNAs are considered to be promising biomarkers for the development of novel, and efficacious therapies for oral dysbiosis. Mechanistic insights into how oral pathogens communicate with other bacteria… More > Graphic Abstract

    The bacterial small RNAs: The new biomarkers of oral microbiota-associated cancers and diseases

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