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  • Open Access


    Germination of grasses and shrubs under various water stress and temperature conditions

    Bonvissuto GL1, CA Busso2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.76, pp. 119-131, 2007, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2007.76.119

    Abstract The effects of various temperature combinations and water potentials were determined on the germination of Atriplex lampa Gill. ex Moquin, Larrea divaricata Cav., Leymus erianthus (Phil.) Dubcovsky, Stipa neaei Nees ex Steudel and Poa ligularis Nees ap. Steudel under controlled conditions. The tested hypothesis was that seed germination increases with increasing temperatures and water potentials in A. lampa, L. divaricata, L. erianthus, S. neaei and P. ligularis, and that time to reach 50% of total germination is greater at lower than higher water potentials. PEG 2000 was used to impose water stress conditions. In general, obtained results conducted to accept the posted hyphotesis. More >

  • Open Access


    Pitaya (Stenocereus stellatus) fruit growth is associated to wet season in Mexican dry tropic

    García-Suárez1 F, L Carreto-Montoya2, R Cárdenas-Navarro3, JC Díaz-Pérez4, R López-Gómez

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.76, pp. 19-26, 2007, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2007.76.019

    Abstract In this work we contribute to the knowledge of the reproductive phenology of Stenocereus stellatus (Pfeiffer,Riccobono), a columnar cactus that produces fruits of high commercial perspectives known as “pitayas”. This kind of pitayas are produced for local commercialization in back orchards in some regions of the Mexican dry tropics. These fruits are produced only in the apical part of the cactus “arms”. Our results show that fruit development of pitayas is highly associated to the rainy season of the year. This behavior is different from the reproductive strategy of other columnar cactus species that produce other More >

  • Open Access


    Effects of water stress at different temperatures on germination of Bulnesia retama seeds (Gill. ex. Hook.) Griseb. -Zigofiláceas- in San Luis, Argentina

    Rodríguez Rivera M F, LR Sosa, EA Fernández, M I Reale, V Villarreal

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.76, pp. 5-17, 2007, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2007.76.005

    Abstract We studied the germination capacity of Bulnesia retama seeds to conditions of water stress simulated by PEG6000 at different temperatures. We also evaluated their recovery to water stress conditions. Seeds were collected in San Luis city, Argentina. They were placed in polyethylene bags with different concentrations of PEG6000 to simulate water potentials of 0 (control); -0.25; -0.5; -0.75; -1; -1.25 and -1.5 MPa. Seeds were placed in culture oven without light to three temperatures: 18º, 25º and 32 ºC. Non-germinated seeds were washed and placed again to germinate in distilled water to 25 ºC. We registered… More >

  • Open Access


    High temperature and water stress during flowering in tropical corn populations

    Rincón-Tuexi1, Sergio Castro-Nava2, José Alberto López-Santillán2, Alfredo J Huerta3, Carlos Trejo-López4, Florencio Briones-Encinia

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.75, pp. 31-40, 2006, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2006.75.031

    Abstract Effects of water and high temperature stresses, either separately or in combination, over biomass accumulation, grain yield and its direct components grain number per ear and individual grain weight], as well as harvest index were determined in four tropical maize populations. Results indicated that water stress do not significantly affect the studied variables, due to the absence of a severe water stress during flowering. This was the result of the fallen precipitation at this time. The most important factor in this study was high temperature, which significantly reduced all studied variables, except individual grain weight.… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of PEG8000 and NaCl on germination and seedling traits of tropical maize (Zea mays L.)

    Castañón-Nájera G1, L Latorunerie-Moreno2, YA Gálvez Muñoz3

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 290-295, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.290

    Abstract Among the different types of abiotic stresses, water is the most damaging for crops. In the current research, the effect of water stress, induced with Polyethylene Glycol 8000 (PEG8000) and Sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions, was studied in maize genotypes. A randomized block design (RBD) with a factorial arrangement and four replications of 25 seeds each was used. The studied maize genotypes were RC2C39, RC2C51 (wild varieties of the State of Tabasco backcrossed with the endogamic line CML247 of the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat), wild Tamulte, VS536, and Asgrow 7573 hybrid, study… More >

  • Open Access


    Vermicompost and water stress effects on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): productive parameters and water relations

    Aguilar-Benítez G1*, CB Peña-Valdivia2, R Castro-Rivera3, JP Lara-Ávila1, E Cruz-Crespo4, AN Rojas-Velázquez1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 28-39, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.028

    Abstract It is documented that vermicompost increases germination and productivity of crops, but little is known of its effect on plant physiological responses under soil water deficit. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vermicompost and irrigation interruption on stomatal conductance, gas exchange, and yield of common bean cultivars (drought tolerant -cv. 92 and drought susceptible-cv. 122). Plants were cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with 1.5 and 3% of vermicompost, with irrigation during the whole cycle but irrigation interruption at the flowering stage. Changes in soil moisture, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration… More >

  • Open Access


    Water relations and leaf growth rate of three Agropyron genotypes under water stress


    BIOCELL, Vol.26, No.3, pp. 309-317, 2002, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2002.26.309

    Abstract The effects of water stress on leaf water relations and growth are reported for three perennial tussock grass genotypes under glasshouse conditions. Studies were performed in genotypes El Palmar INTA and Selección Anguil of Agropyron scabrifolium (Döell) Parodi, and El Vizcachero of A. elongatum (Host) Beauv. Agropyron scabrifolium El Palmar INTA is native to a region with warm-temperate and humid climate without a dry season, and an average annual precipitation of 900 mm. Agropyron scabrifolium Selección Anguil comes from a region with a sub-humid, dry to semiarid climate and a mean annual precipitation of 600 mm. Agropyron elongatum is a… More >

  • Open Access


    Growth and biochemical responses of moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) to vermicompost and phosphate rock under water stress conditions

    Abud-Archila M1, AK Espinosa-Arrioja1, T González-Soto2, VF Gutiérrez-Oliva1, V Ruíz-Valdiviezo1, D González-Mendoza2, L Rodríguez-Hernández3, FA Gutiérrez-Miceli1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.87, pp. 209-215, 2018, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2018.87.209

    Abstract The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of vermicompost and phosphate rock on plant growth and biochemical responses of Moringa oleifera exposed to water deficit and waterlogging conditions. Treatments included 152 g of vermicompost (V) and 1.3 g of phosphate rock (PR) added to each cultivation bag. Control was prepared with 2.3 g of urea. All treatments were irrigated under different watering conditions [water deficit: irrigated at 20% water holding capacity (WHC); control (40% WHC) and waterlogging (60% WHC)]. The overall average in plant height was 90, 86 and 68 cm, whereas chlorophyll… More >

  • Open Access


    Higher-Order Stress and Size Effects Due to Self Energy of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations

    N. Ohno1, D. Okumura1

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 207-214, 2007, DOI:10.3970/icces.2007.004.207

    Abstract The self energy of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) is considered to inevitably introduce the higher-order stress work-conjugate to slip gradient in single crystals. It is pointed out that this higher-order stress stepwise changes in response to in-plane slip gradient and thus directly influences the onset of initial yielding in polycrystals. The self energy of GNDs is then incorporated into the strain gradient theory of Gurtin (2002). The resulting theory is applied to model crystal grains of size D, leading to a D-1-dependent term with a coefficient determined by grain shape and orientation. It is thus More >

  • Open Access


    Higher-Order Stress-Strain Theory for Damage Modeling Implemented in an Element-free Galerkin Formulation

    Yang Yang1, Anil Misra2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.64, No.1, pp. 1-36, 2010, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2010.064.001

    Abstract Gradient theories have found wide applications in modeling of strain softening phenomena. This paper presents a higher order stress-strain theory to describe the damage behavior of strain softening materials. In contrast to most conventional gradient approaches for damage modeling, the present higher order theory considers strain gradients and their conjugate higher-order stress such that stable numerical solutions may be achieved. We have described the derivation of the required constitutive relationships, the governing equations and its weak form for this higher-order theory. The constitutive coefficients were obtained from a granular media approach such that the internal More >

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