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  • Open Access


    Earthworm Optimization with Improved SqueezeNet Enabled Facial Expression Recognition Model

    N. Sharmili1, Saud Yonbawi2, Sultan Alahmari3, E. Laxmi Lydia4, Mohamad Khairi Ishak5, Hend Khalid Alkahtani6,*, Ayman Aljarbouh7, Samih M. Mostafa8

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.2, pp. 2247-2262, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.036377

    Abstract Facial expression recognition (FER) remains a hot research area among computer vision researchers and still becomes a challenge because of high intra-class variations. Conventional techniques for this problem depend on hand-crafted features, namely, LBP, SIFT, and HOG, along with that a classifier trained on a database of videos or images. Many execute perform well on image datasets captured in a controlled condition; however not perform well in the more challenging dataset, which has partial faces and image variation. Recently, many studies presented an endwise structure for facial expression recognition by utilizing DL methods. Therefore, this study develops an earthworm optimization… More >

  • Open Access


    Effects of Soil Nutrient Heterogeneity and Earthworms on Aboveground Biomass of Experimental Plant Communities

    Simei Yao1,2, Yu Jin2,3, Limin Zhang2, Ningfei Lei1,*, Wei Xue2,*, Jinsong Chen3, Qian Zhang2, Feihai Yu1,2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.4, pp. 1259-1271, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.014968

    Abstract Soil nutrients are commonly heterogeneously distributed and earthworms are one of the most common soil organisms. While effects of both soil nutrient heterogeneity and earthworms have been well studied, their interactive effect on plant community productivity has rarely been tested. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed experimental plant communities by sowing seed mixtures of four grasses, two legumes and two forbs in either a heterogeneous soil consisting of low and high nutrient soil patches or a homogeneous soil where the low and high nutrient soil patches were evenly mixed. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was either added to these soils or… More >

  • Open Access


    Interaction between Earthworms and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Plants: A Review

    Lulu Meng1, A. K. Srivastava2, Kamil Kuča3, Bhoopander Giri4, Mohammed Mahabubur Rahman5, Qiangsheng Wu1,3,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.3, pp. 687-699, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015427

    Abstract Different kinds of soil animals and microorganisms inhabit the plant rhizosphere, which function closely to plant roots. Of them, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and earthworms play a critical role in sustaining the soil-plant health. Earthworms and AMF belong to the soil community and are soil beneficial organisms at different trophic levels. Both of them improve soil fertility and structural development, collectively promoting plant growth and nutrient acquisition capacity. Earthworm activities redistribute mycorrhizal fungi spores and give diversified effects on root mycorrhizal fungal colonization. Dual inoculation with both earthworms and AMF strongly magnifies the response on plant growth through increased soil… More >

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