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  • Open Access


    Massive MIMO Codebook Design Using Gaussian Mixture Model Based Clustering

    S. Markkandan1,*, S. Sivasubramanian2, Jaison Mulerikkal3, Nazeer Shaik4, Beulah Jackson5, Lakshmi Naryanan6

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 361-375, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.021779

    Abstract The codebook design is the most essential core technique in constrained feedback massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system communications. MIMO vectors have been generally isotropic or evenly distributed in traditional codebook designs. In this paper, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based clustering codebook design is proposed, which is inspired by the strong classification and analytical abilities of clustering techniques. Huge quantities of channel state information (CSI) are initially saved as entry data of the clustering process. Further, split into N number of clusters based on the shortest distance. The centroids part of clustering has been utilized for constructing a codebook with statistic… More >

  • Open Access


    Pedestrian Crossing Detection Based on HOG and SVM

    Yunzuo Zhang*, Kaina Guo, Wei Guo, Jiayu Zhang, Yi Li

    Journal of Cyber Security, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 79-88, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jcs.2021.017082

    Abstract In recent years, pedestrian detection is a hot research topic in the field of computer vision and artificial intelligence, it is widely used in the field of security and pedestrian analysis. However, due to a large amount of calculation in the traditional pedestrian detection technology, the speed of many systems for pedestrian recognition is very limited. But in some restricted areas, such as construction hazardous areas, real-time detection of pedestrians and cross-border behaviors is required. To more conveniently and efficiently detect whether there are pedestrians in the restricted area and cross-border behavior, this paper proposes a pedestrian cross-border detection method… More >

  • Open Access


    Brainwave Classification for Character-Writing Application Using EMD-Based GMM and KELM Approaches

    Khomdet Phapatanaburi1, Kasidit kokkhunthod2, Longbiao Wang3, Talit Jumphoo2, Monthippa Uthansakul2, Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud4, Peerapong Uthansakul2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.3, pp. 3029-3044, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014433

    Abstract A brainwave classification, which does not involve any limb movement and stimulus for character-writing applications, benefits impaired people, in terms of practical communication, because it allows users to command a device/computer directly via electroencephalogram signals. In this paper, we propose a new framework based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) features along with the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (KELM)-based classifiers. For this purpose, firstly, we introduce EMD to decompose EEG signals into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), which actually are used as the input features of the brainwave classification for the character-writing application. We hypothesize that EMD… More >

  • Open Access


    Threshold-Based Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model Integration (TA-GMMI) Algorithm for Mapping Snow Cover in Mountainous Terrain

    Yonghong Zhang1,2, Guangyi Ma1,2,*, Wei Tian3, Jiangeng Wang4, Shiwei Chen1,2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.124, No.3, pp. 1149-1165, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2020.010932

    Abstract Snow cover is an important parameter in the fields of computer modeling, engineering technology and energy development. With the extensive growth of novel hardware and software compositions creating smart, cyber physical systems’ (CPS) efficient end-to-end workflows. In order to provide accurate snow detection results for the CPS’s terminal, this paper proposed a snow cover detection algorithm based on the unsupervised Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the FY-4A satellite data. At present, most snow cover detection algorithms mainly utilize the characteristics of the optical spectrum, which is based on the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) with thresholds in different wavebands. These… More >

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