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  • Open Access


    Life Cycle Assessment Introduced by Using Nanorefrigerant of Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery

    Yuchen Yang1,2, Lin Ma1,2,*, Jie Yu1,2, Zewen Zhao1,2, Pengfei You1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1153-1179, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022719

    Abstract The use of nanorefrigerants in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) units is believed to affect the cycle environment performance, but backed with very few relevant studies. For this purpose, a life cycle assessment (LCA) has been performed for the ORC system using nanorefrigerant, the material and energy input, characteristic indicators and comprehensive index of environmental impact, total energy consumption and energy payback time (BPBT) of the whole life cycle of ORC system using Al2O3/R141b nanorefrigerant were calculated. Total environmental comprehensive indexes reveal that ECER-135 index decrease by 1.5% after adding 0.2% Al2O3 nanoparticles to R141b. Based on the contribution analysis and… More >

  • Open Access


    Energy Consumption Analysis and Characterization of Aerospace Manufacturing Facilities in the United States–A Step towards Sustainable Development

    Khaled Bawaneh1,*, Bradley Deken2, Amin Esmaeili3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.120, No.1, pp. 23-34, 2023, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.019813

    Abstract In this study, information on energy usage in the United States (U.S.) aerospace manufacturing sector has been analyzed and then represented as energy intensities (kWh/m2) to establish benchmark data and to compare facilities of varying sizes. First, public sources were identified and the data from these previously published sources were aggregated to determine the energy usage of aerospace manufacturing facilities within the U.S. From this dataset, a sample of 28 buildings were selected and the energy intensity for each building was estimated from the data. Next, as a part of this study the energy data for three additional aerospace manufacturing… More >

  • Open Access


    Preliminary Life Cycle Inventory of Rapeseed Oil Polyols for Polyurethane Production

    Anda Fridrihsone-Girone

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 28-33, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634136

    Abstract This study assesses present preliminary Life Cycle Inventory for rapeseed oil polyols suitable for the production of polyurethane, which is one of the most widely used polymer materials. Due to growing environmental problems, the polyurethane industry is seeking bio-based raw materials. A study was carried out for rapeseed oil triethanolamine polyol developed at Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry. The cradle-to-gate study was carried out with functional unit of 1 kg rapeseed oil polyol synthesized in a scaled-up pilot reactor. The results show that at the midpoint level the production of rapeseed oil has the highest impact in the following… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluating Security of Big Data Through Fuzzy Based Decision-Making Technique

    Fawaz Alassery1, Ahmed Alzahrani2, Asif Irshad Khan2, Kanika Sharma3, Masood Ahmad4, Raees Ahmad Khan4,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.1, pp. 859-872, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.025796

    Abstract In recent years, it has been observed that the disclosure of information increases the risk of terrorism. Without restricting the accessibility of information, providing security is difficult. So, there is a demand for time to fill the gap between security and accessibility of information. In fact, security tools should be usable for improving the security as well as the accessibility of information. Though security and accessibility are not directly influenced, some of their factors are indirectly influenced by each other. Attributes play an important role in bridging the gap between security and accessibility. In this paper, we identify the key… More >

  • Open Access


    A Literature Review on Sustainability of Bio-Based and Biodegradable Plastics: Challenges and Opportunities

    Taofeeq D. Moshood, Gusman Nawanir, Fatimah Mahmud*, Fazeeda Mohamad, Mohd Hanafiah Ahmad, Airin AbdulGhani

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.4, pp. 1611-1647, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019028

    Abstract This study examines the literature on bio-based and biodegradable plastics published between 2000 and 2021 and provides insights and research suggestions for the future. The study gathers data from the Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases, then picks 1042 publications objectively and analyses their metadata. Furthermore, 144 papers from the Web of Science are analysed to present insights and classifications of the literature based on content analyses, including assessment/evaluation of the sustainability of bio-based and biodegradable Plastics, sustainability of biodegradable Plastics, and factors driving the uptake of biodegradable plastics. The study finds that most research on bio-based and biodegradable… More >

  • Open Access


    Distribution Network Equipment Location and Capacity Planning Method Considering Energy Internet Attribute from the Perspective of Life Cycle Cost

    Qiang Li1,*, Lei Xue1, Xia Lin2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1059-1074, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017687

    Abstract For facing the challenges brought by large-scale renewable energy having access to the system and considering the key technologies of energy Internet, it is very necessary to put forward the location method of distribution network equipment and capacity from the perspective of life cycle cost. Compared with the traditional energy network, the equipment capacity problem of energy interconnected distribution network which involves in electricity network, thermal energy network and natural gas network is comprehensively considered in this paper. On this basis, firstly, the operation architecture of energy interconnected distribution network is designed. Secondly, taking the grid connection location and configuration… More >

  • Open Access


    Energy and Life Cycle Assessment of Zinc/Water Nanofluid Based Photovoltaic Thermal System

    Junaid Khan, Rashid Ali, Muzammil Zubair, Syed Mohd Yahya*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.2, pp. 827-846, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.016344

    Abstract Cooling the PV surface in a Photovoltaic Thermal system is a pivotal operational aspect to be taken into account to achieve optimized values of performance parameters in a Photovoltaic Thermal System. The experimental design used in this study facilitates the flow of varying concentrations of Zn-water nanofluid in serpentine copper tubing installed at the rear of the PV panel thereby preventing the PV surface temperature from increasing beyond the threshold value at which a decrease in electrical efficiency starts to occur. This fusion of solar thermal with PV devices leads to better electrical and thermal efficiency values resulting in decreased… More >

  • Open Access


    Security Threat and Vulnerability Assessment and Measurement in Secure Software Development

    Mamoona Humayun1, NZ Jhanjhi2,*, Maram Fahhad Almufareh1, Muhammad Ibrahim Khalil3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 5039-5059, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019289

    Abstract Security is critical to the success of software, particularly in today's fast-paced, technology-driven environment. It ensures that data, code, and services maintain their CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability). This is only possible if security is taken into account at all stages of the SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle). Various approaches to software quality have been developed, such as CMMI (Capability maturity model integration). However, there exists no explicit solution for incorporating security into all phases of SDLC. One of the major causes of pervasive vulnerabilities is a failure to prioritize security. Even the most proactive companies use the “patch and… More >

  • Open Access


    Secured Vehicle Life Cycle Tracking Using Blockchain and Smart Contract

    Srinivasan Ananthanarayanan Bragadeesh, Arumugam Umamakeswari*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 1-18, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.019842

    Abstract Life Cycle Tracking (LCT) involves continuous monitoring and analysis of various activities associated with a vehicle. The crucial factor in the LCT is to ensure the validity of gathered data as numerous supply chain phases are involved and the data is assessed by multiple stakeholders. Frauds and swindling activities can be prevented if the history of the vehicles is made available to the interested parties. Blockchain provides a way of enforcing trustworthiness to the supply chain participants and the data associated with the various actions performed. Machine learning techniques when combined decentralized nature of blockchains can be used to develop… More >

  • Open Access


    Network Analysis for Projects with High Risk Levels in Uncertain Environments

    Mohamed Abdel-Basset1, Asmaa Atef1, Mohamed Abouhawwash2,3, Yunyoung Nam4,*, Nabil M. AbdelAziz1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 1281-1296, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.018947

    Abstract The critical path method is one of the oldest and most important techniques used for planning and scheduling projects. The main objective of project management science is to determine the critical path through a network representation of projects. The critical path through a network can be determined by many algorithms and is useful for managing, monitoring, and controlling the time and cost of an entire project. The essential problem in this case is that activity durations are uncertain; time presents considerable uncertainty because the time of an activity is not always easily or accurately estimated. This issue increases the need… More >

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