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  • Open Access


    Experimental and Analytical Studies of Tumor Growth

    Hao Sun1, Timothy Eswothy1, Kerlin P. Robert1, Jiaoyan Li2, L. G. Zhang1, James D. Lee1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 75-75, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07090

    Abstract Most biological phenomena commonly involve with mechanics. In this work, we proposed an innovative model that tumor is considered as a pyroelastic medium consisting of two parts: solid and fluid. The variation of solid part depends on whether the drug has been effectively delivered to the tumor site. We derived the governing equations of the tumor, in which large deformation is incorporated. Meanwhile, the finite element equations for coupled displacement field and pressure field are formulated. We proposed two sets of porosity and growth tensor. In both cases the continuum theory and FEM are accompanied by accurate numerical simulations. To… More >

  • Open Access


    Finite Element Analysis of 4D Printing

    Kerlin P. Robert1, Jiaoyan Li2, James D. Lee1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 74-74, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07125

    Abstract This presentation focuses on the new and upcoming concept of 4D printing and its vast scope and importance in the research and development in industry. The 3D printing object is considered as a layered structure. Each layer may have different orientation. Therefore each layer may behave differently under the change of its environment. We formulate the theoretical shape changing process of 4D printing resulted from (I) the biological growth or swelling, (II) the change of temperature, and (III) the effect of electric field on piezoelectric material of the 3D printing product. Then we illustrate this theory visually through finite element… More >

  • Open Access


    Biological Growth and Remodeling: A Uniaxial Example with Possible Application to Tendons and Ligaments

    I. J. Rao1, J.D. Humphrey2, K.R. Rajagopal3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.4, No.3&4, pp. 439-456, 2003, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2003.004.439

    Abstract Recent discoveries in molecular and cell biology reveal that many cell types sense and respond (via altered gene expression) to changes in their mechanical environment. Such mechanotransduction mechanisms are responsible for many changes in structure and function, including the growth and remodeling process. To understand better, and ultimately to use (e.g., in tissue engineering), biological growth and remodeling, there is a need for mathematical models that have predictive and not just descriptive capability. In contrast to prior models based on reaction-diffusion equations or the concept of volumetric growth, we examine here a newly proposed constrained mixture model for growth and… More >

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