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  • Open Access


    Mixed-Ligand Ni(II), Co(II) and Fe(II) Complexes as Catalysts for Esterification of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid with Polyol and in Situ Reduction via Hydrogenation with NaBH4

    Md. Anwar Hossain1,2, Lee Hwei Voon1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.8, pp. 731-748, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.04703

    Abstract Synthesizing polyol-based ester from biomass feedstocks for the preparation of biolubricant overcomes the dependence on petroleum oil usage. Albeit biomass-derived bio-oil is an alternative for the production of polyol ester, upgrading is essential prior to use as biolubricant. Levulinic acid (LA), obtained from bio-oil was applied for the catalytic esterification with two polyols, e.g., trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE), in the presence of mixed-ligand Ni(II), Co(II), and Fe(II) complexes as catalyst. New mixed-ligand coordination complexes with empirical formula; [Ni(Phe)(Bpy)Cl].H2O, [Co(Phe)(Bpy)Cl].H2O, and [Fe(Phe)(Tyr)Cl].H2O were synthesized by the reaction of ligands [L-phenylalanine (Phe), 4,4'-bipyridine (Bpy), and L-tyrosine (Tyr)] with metal chloride salts… More >

  • Open Access


    Biodegradable Additive for the Construction Industry

    Juan Carlos Torres Lozada*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.6, pp. 523-525, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.04053

    Abstract This paper presents the patent of a new additive for the construction industry, which is obtained from the biomass residues of the wood industry. This additive is biodegradable and has fluidifying, foaming, plasticizing and stabilizing properties. When the additive is mixed with cement binder compositions, cement mortar and concrete, lightweight, flame-retardant cellular materials, thermal and acoustic insulators are obtained. More >

  • Open Access


    Semi-Interpenetrating Novolac-Epoxy Thermoset Polymer Networks Derived from Plant Biomass

    Mehul Barde1,2, Yusuf Celikbag3, Brian Via3, Sushil Adhikari4, Maria L. Auad1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.7, pp. 724-736, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00116

    Abstract Bio-based phenol-formaldehyde polymer (BioNovolac) was developed by reacting molar excess of bio-oil/phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Glycidyl 3,5-diglycidoxybenzoate (GDGB), was prepared by direct glycidylation of α-resorcylic acid (RA), a naturally occurring phenolic monomer. GDGB was crosslinked in the presence of BioNovolac by anionic polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The glass transition temperature and moduli of bio-based crosslinked systems were observed to increase with increasing GDGB content. Active chain density and mass retention measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and Soxhlet extraction, respectively, indicated a high crosslink density of the cured networks.… More >

  • Open Access


    Enzymatic Conversion of Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Platform for the Production of Ethanol, Enzymes and Nanocellulose

    Cristiane S. Farinas*, José Manoel Marconcini, Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 203-216, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.6341578

    Abstract The conversion of sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass into fuels, chemicals and high-value materials using the biochemical pathway is considered the most sustainable alternative for the implementation of future biorefineries. Actually, the first large-scale cellulosic ethanol plants that have started operating worldwide apply the enzymatic hydrolysis process to convert biomass into simple sugars that are fermented to ethanol by yeasts. However, several technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to obtain commercially competitive products. This review describes current challenges and perspectives regarding the enzymatic hydrolysis step for processing sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass within the biorefinery. Recent developments in terms of process… More >

  • Open Access


    Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Biomass and Heat Integration as Enhancers of Ethanol Production

    Reynaldo Palacios-Bereche1, Adriano Ensinas2, Marcelo Modesto1, Silvia Nebra1,3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 183-194, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634175

    Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the possibility of increasing ethanol production by introducing the bagasse hydrolysis process into conventional distilleries. Simulations were performed for mass and energy balances using Aspen Plus® software. It was assumed that sugarcane trash and lignin cake—hydrolysis process residues—are available as supplementary fuel. Several cases were evaluated, including: (a) conventional ethanol distillery, (b) conventional plant combined with a hydrolysis process without heat integration, with different solid contents in the hydrolysis reactor, and (c) conventional plant combined with the hydrolysis process applying heat integration by pinch analysis. The highest ethanol yield was achieved in… More >

  • Open Access


    Review of Cellulose Smart Material: Biomass Conversion Process and Progress on Cellulose-Based Electroactive Paper

    S.H. Hassan1,2, Lee Hwei Voon1*, T.S. Velayutham2*, Lindong Zhai3, Hyun Chan Kim3, Jaehwan Kim3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 1-25, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634173

    Abstract Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low power consumption in the application… More >

  • Open Access


    Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32 from Residual Glycerol of the Bioenergy Industry

    Enzo Alvarado-Cordero1, Gabriela Montes de Oca-Vásquez2, Reinaldo Pereira-Reyes2, José Vega-Baudrit2, Marianelly Esquivel-Alfaro1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 323-331, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634123

    Abstract Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources are generating growing interest in the plastic industry because they have properties similar to synthetic polymers. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), have mechanical and physicochemical properties very similar to their synthetic counterparts. This work explores the use of residual glycerol from the bioenergy industry for the production of PHB by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32. The glycerol works as a source of carbon and energy. Raw glycerol was purified with sulfuric acid in order to neutralize saponified fatty acids. The purification process generated three different phases. One of the phases was the glycerol-rich layer; this layer was… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Plant-Based Biosorbent for Removal of Copper (II) from Aqueous Solutions: Biosorption of Copper (II) by Dried Plant Biomass

    Abha Dubey1*, Anuradha Mishra2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 54-61, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634127

    Abstract Biosorption effectively removes heavy metal ions by using inexpensive biosorbents. In this study, Portulaca oleracea plant waste biomass was used as environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. This article includes the study of the effects of various important parameters on the biosorption process. Maximum biosorption was found to occur under slightly acidic conditions (pH 6). Small particle size, moderate agitation speed, and moderate temperature favor the biosorption process. The Langmuir model was most suitable, showing the biosorption capacity to be 85.470 mg/g. Pseudo-secondorder model best described the kinetics of the biosorption process. Thermodynamic studies… More >

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