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  • Open Access


    Carotenoids: New Applications of “Old” Pigments

    Stefan M. Kolašinac1, Zora P. Dajić Stevanović1,*, Sofija N. Kilibarda1,  Aleksandar Ž. Kostić2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.4, pp. 1041-1062, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015996

    Abstract Carotenoids represent a large group of mainly red, orange, and yellow natural metabolites mainly involved in regulation of many metabolic processes. Carotenoids are beneficial for human health. Current study describes the importance, chemical composition and functioning of carotenoids. It is well known that carotenoids support pigments acting in light absorbance mechanisms during photosynthesis, and are known to protect the chlorophyll molecules from oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. Carotenoids are involved in signaling processes in plants, responses to environmental stresses, pollination, germination and reproduction, and development regulation. As nutrients of strong antioxidant activity that is primarily linked to… More >

  • Open Access


    Nanoparticles induce the biosynthesis and activity of the new possible therapeutic proteinase source, Talaromyces purpureogenus KJ584844


    BIOCELL, Vol.45, No.1, pp. 119-127, 2021, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.012011

    Abstract The need for the bacterial proteinase is rapidly growing, urging to catch a lowcost medium for the microbial fermentation, nanoparticles can play a vital role in this respect. The proteinase of Talaromyces purpureogenus was produced on the tubers of Helianthus tuberosus that also operated as solid support for the fermentation process. The interface amongst nitrogen sources (NH4Cl and yeast extract) was investigated, applying the statistical modeling of central composite design under solid-state fermentation. The optimum medium for proteinase secretion was stimulated by 979.82 mg NH4Cl and 437.68 mg yeast extract per 100 g substrate, yielding 108.15 U/g tubers. Using Plackett-Burman… More >

  • Open Access


    DWARF and SMALL SEED1, a Novel Allele of OsDWARF, Controls Rice Plant Architecture, Seed Size, and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis

    Yan Li1, Renquan Huang1, Jianrong Li1, Xiaozhen Huang1, Xiaofang Zeng1,*, Degang Zhao1,2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.1, pp. 111-127, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.013933

    Abstract Plant architecture is a vital agronomic trait to control yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). A dwarf and small seed 1 (dss1) mutant were obtained from the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized progeny of a Guizhou glutinous landrace cultivar, Lipingzabianhe. The dss1 mutant displayed phenotypes similar to those of brassinosteroid (BR) deficient mutants, such as dwarfing, dark green and rugose erect leaves, small seeds, and loner neck internode panicles with primary branching. In our previous study, the underlying DSS1 gene was isolated, a novel allele of OsDWARF (OsBR6ox) that encodes a cytochrome P450 protein involved in the BR biosynthetic pathway by… More >

  • Open Access


    Flesh Color Diversity of Sweet Potato: An Overview of the Composition, Functions, Biosynthesis, and Gene Regulation of the Major Pigments

    Hanna Amoanimaa-Dede, Chuntao Su, Akwasi Yeboah, Chunhua Chen, Shaoxia Yang, Hongbo Zhu*, Miao Chen*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 805-833, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011979

    Abstract Sweet potato is a multifunctional root crop and a source of food with many essential nutrients and bioactive compounds. Variations in the flesh color of the diverse sweet potato varieties are attributed to the different phytochemicals and natural pigments they produce. Among them, carotenoids and anthocyanins are the main pigments known for their antioxidant properties which provide a host of health benefits, hence, regarded as a major component of the human diet. In this review, we provide an overview of the major pigments in sweet potato with much emphasis on their biosynthesis, functions, and regulatory control. Moreover, current findings on… More >

  • Open Access


    Elemental sulfur upregulated testicular testosterone biosynthesis by associating with altered gut microbiota in mice


    BIOCELL, Vol.44, No.3, pp. 301-313, 2020, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2020.011208

    Abstract Elemental sulfur has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat the late-onset hypogonadism and impotence without a clarified mechanism for many hundreds of years. In the present study, mice were received sulfur or distilled water for 35 days by daily intragastric gavage at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. Then, the serum testosterone level and genes associated with testicular testosterone biosynthesis (TTB) were detected. The gut microbiota was also analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Serum testosterone level was significantly increased by 291.1% in sulfur-treated mice. The H2S levels in serum and feces were significantly increased. The… More >

  • Open Access


    In Vitro Propagation, Isolation and Expression Studies of Suaeda edulis Genes Involved in the Osmoprotectants Biosynthesis

    Gloria Viviana Cerrillo-Rojas1, Mariana Tiscareño-Andrade1, Ana Erika Ochoa-Alfaro2, Eugenio Pérez-Molphe Balch1, Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra2, José Francisco Morales-Domínguez1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.3, pp. 715-726, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09769

    Abstract Halophytes are an excellent choice for the study of genes conferring salt tolerance to salt-sensitive plants and, they are suitable for reclamation and remediation of saline soil. We develop an in vitro plant propagation protocol and studies of genes involved with GB and Pro biosynthesis in Suaeda edulis. Axillary buds were used as explants and cultured in different treatments on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The highest number of multiple shoots was on MS medium containing 1 mg/L Benzyladenine (BA) and / or 2 g/L activated carbon with 5.5 ±… More >

  • Open Access


    Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism and their regulation roles in fruit ripening

    Yang FW, XQ Feng

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.2, pp. 444-453, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.444

    Abstract Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a series of significant physiology roles in higher plants including but not limited to promote bud and seed dormancy, accelerate foliage fall, induce stomatal closure, inhibit growth and enhance resistance. Recently, it has been revealed that ABA also has an important regulator role in the growth, development and ripening of fruit. In higher plants ABA is produced from an indirect pathway from the cleavage products of carotenoids. The accumulation of endogenous ABA levels in plants is a dynamic balance controlled by the processes of biosynthesis and catabolism, through the regulation of key ABA biosynthetic gene and… More >

  • Open Access


    Biosynthesis of proline in fruits of green bean plants: deficiency versus toxicity of nitrogen

    Sánchez E1, G Ávila-Quezada1, AA Gardea1, JM Ruiz2, L Romero2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.76, pp. 143-152, 2007, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2007.76.143

    Abstract The objective of this work was to determine the effect of deficiency versus toxicity of N on biosynthesis of proline in fruits of green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Strike). Nitrogen was applied to the nutritive solution in the form of NH4NO3 at 1.5 mM (N1), 3.0 mM (N2), 6.0 mM (N3, optimal level), 12.0 mM (N4), 18.0 mM (N5), and 24.0 mM (N6). Nitrogen deficiency (N1 and N2) was characterized by having lower proline accumulation in pods and seeds, mainly because proline degradation was stimulated by the enzyme proline dehydrogenase. On the other hand, N toxicity (N4, N5,… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Permeability Properties for Bacterial Cellulose/ Montmorillonite Hybrid Bionanocomposite Membranes by In-Situ Assembling

    Itxaso Algar1, Clara Garcia-Astrain1, Alba Gonzalez2, Loli Martin3, Nagore Gabilondo1, Aloña Retegi1*, Arantxa Eceiza1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.1, pp. 57-65, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634124

    Abstract Bacterial cellulose/montmorillonite (BCMMT) hybrid bionanocomposite membranes were prepared by in-situ assembling or one-step biosynthesis process. The presence of MMT in BC membranes was confi rmed by thermogravimetric analysis and quantifi ed by mass spectrometry, resulting in bionanocomposites with MMT contents between 7–13 wt%. The incorporation of MMT during BC biosynthesis modifi ed BC morphology and led to lower porosity, even though higher water holding capacity was achieved. Bionanocomposites showed improved thermal stability and water vapor and oxygen gas barrier properties up to 70 and 80% with respect to neat BC membranes. This improvement was related to the tortuous path of… More >

  • Open Access


    A Fully Coupled Poroelastic Reactive-Transport Model of Cartilage

    Lihai Zhang*, Bruce S. Gardiner*, David W. Smith*, Peter Pivonka*, Alan Grodzinsky

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 133-154, 2008, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2008.005.133

    Abstract Cartilage maintains its integrity in a hostile mechanical environment. This task is made more difficult because cartilage has no blood supply, and so nutrients and growth factors need to be transported greater distances than normal to reach cells several millimetres from the cartilage surface. The chondrocytes embedded within the extracellular matrix (ECM) are essential for maintaining the mechanical integrity of the ECM, through a balance of degradation and synthesis of collagen and proteoglycans. A chondrocyte senses various chemical and mechanical signals in its local microenvironment, responding by appropriate adaption of the local ECM. Clearly a 'systems understanding' of cartilage behaviour… More >

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