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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Physical Layer Algorithm for Estimation of Number of Tags in UHF RFID Anti-Collision Design

    Zhong Huang1, Jian Su2, Guangjun Wen1, Wenxian Zheng3, Chu Chu1, Yijun Zhang4,*, Yibo Zhang5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.61, No.1, pp. 399-408, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05876

    Abstract A priori knowledge of the number of tags is crucial for anti-collision protocols in slotted UHF RFID systems. The number of tags is used to decide optimal frame length in dynamic frame slotted ALOHA (DFSA) and to adjust access probability in random access protocols. Conventional researches estimate the number of tags in MAC layer based on statistics of empty slots, collided slots and successful slots. Usually, a collision detection algorithm is employed to determine types of time slots. Only three types are distinguished because of lack of ability to detect the number of tags in More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Application of Self-Organizing Feature Map Neural Network Based on K-means Clustering in Network Intrusion Detection

    Ling Tan1,*, Chong Li2, Jingming Xia2, Jun Cao3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.61, No.1, pp. 275-288, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.03735

    Abstract Due to the widespread use of the Internet, customer information is vulnerable to computer systems attack, which brings urgent need for the intrusion detection technology. Recently, network intrusion detection has been one of the most important technologies in network security detection. The accuracy of network intrusion detection has reached higher accuracy so far. However, these methods have very low efficiency in network intrusion detection, even the most popular SOM neural network method. In this paper, an efficient and fast network intrusion detection method was proposed. Firstly, the fundamental of the two different methods are introduced More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Efficient Crossing-Line Crowd Counting Algorithm with Two-Stage Detection

    Zhenqiu Xiao1,*, Bin Yang2, Desy Tjahjadi3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.3, pp. 1141-1154, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05638

    Abstract Crowd counting is a challenging task in crowded scenes due to heavy occlusions, appearance variations and perspective distortions. Current crowd counting methods typically operate on an image patch level with overlaps, then sum over the patches to get the final count. In this paper we describe a real-time pedestrian counting framework based on a two-stage human detection algorithm. Existing works with overhead cameras is mainly based on visual tracking, and their robustness is rather limited. On the other hand, some works, which focus on improving the performances, are too complicated to be realistic. By adopting… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm Automatically Determining Optimal Number of Clusters

    Ruikang Xing1,*, Chenghai Li1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.2, pp. 767-780, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.04500

    Abstract In clustering analysis, the key to deciding clustering quality is to determine the optimal number of clusters. At present, most clustering algorithms need to give the number of clusters in advance for clustering analysis of the samples. How to gain the correct optimal number of clusters has been an important topic of clustering validation study. By studying and analyzing the FCM algorithm in this study, an accurate and efficient algorithm used to confirm the optimal number of clusters is proposed for the defects of traditional FCM algorithm. For time and clustering accuracy problems of FCM More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Controlled Secure Direct Communication Protocol via the Three-Qubit Partially Entangled Set of States

    Gang Xu1,2,*, Ke Xiao1,*, Zongpeng Li3, Xin-Xin Niu2,4, Michael Ryan5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.3, pp. 809-827, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.04400

    Abstract In this paper, we first re-examine the previous protocol of controlled quantum secure direct communication of Zhang et al.’s scheme, which was found insecure under two kinds of attacks, fake entangled particles attack and disentanglement attack. Then, by changing the party of the preparation of cluster states and using unitary operations, we present an improved protocol which can avoid these two kinds of attacks. Moreover, the protocol is proposed using the three-qubit partially entangled set of states. It is more efficient by only using three particles rather than four or even more to transmit one More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Asynchronous Clustering and Mobile Data Gathering Schema Based on Timer Mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Jin Wang1,2,3, Yu Gao3, Wei Liu3, Wenbing Wu1, Se-Jung Lim4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.3, pp. 711-725, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05450

    Abstract Recently, Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become very popular research topics which are applied to many applications. They provide pervasive computing services and techniques in various potential applications for the Internet of Things (IoT). An Asynchronous Clustering and Mobile Data Gathering based on Timer Mechanism (ACMDGTM) algorithm is proposed which would mitigate the problem of “hot spots” among sensors to enhance the lifetime of networks. The clustering process takes sensors’ location and residual energy into consideration to elect suitable cluster heads. Furthermore, one mobile sink node is employed to access cluster heads in accordance with More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Energy-Efficient Protocol Using an Objective Function & Random Search with Jumps for WSN

    Mohammed Kaddi1,3,*, Khelifa Benahmed2, Mohammed Omari3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.3, pp. 603-624, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05341

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have hardware and software limitations and are deployed in hostile environments. The problem of energy consumption in WSNs has become a very important axis of research. To obtain good performance in terms of the network lifetime, several routing protocols have been proposed in the literature. Hierarchical routing is considered to be the most favorable approach in terms of energy efficiency. It is based on the concept parent-child hierarchy where the child nodes forward their messages to their parent, and then the parent node forwards them, directly or via other parent nodes,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Improved Unsupervised Image Segmentation Method Based on Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Clustering Algorithm

    Zhe Liu1,2,*, Bao Xiang1,3, Yuqing Song1, Hu Lu1, Qingfeng Liu1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.2, pp. 451-461, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.04069

    Abstract Most image segmentation methods based on clustering algorithms use single-objective function to implement image segmentation. To avoid the defect, this paper proposes a new image segmentation method based on a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) clustering algorithm. This unsupervised algorithm not only offers a new similarity computing approach based on electromagnetic forces, but also obtains the proper number of clusters which is determined by scale-space theory. It is experimentally demonstrated that the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective PSO clustering algorithm. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Method of Identifying Thunderstorm Clouds in Satellite Cloud Image Based on Clustering

    Lili He1,2, Dantong Ouyang1,2, Meng Wang1,2, Hongtao Bai1,2, Qianlong Yang1,2, Yaqing Liu3,4, Yu Jiang1,2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.57, No.3, pp. 549-570, 2018, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2018.03840

    Abstract In this paper, the clustering analysis is applied to the satellite image segmentation, and a cloud-based thunderstorm cloud recognition method is proposed in combination with the strong cloud computing power. The method firstly adopts the fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) to obtain the satellite cloud image segmentation. Secondly, in the cloud image, we dispose the ‘high-density connected’ pixels in the same cloud clusters and the ‘low-density connected’ pixels in different cloud clusters. Therefore, we apply the DBSCAN algorithm to the cloud image obtained in the first step to realize cloud cluster knowledge. Finally, using the method More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Evidence Combination Method based on DBSCAN Clustering

    Kehua Yang1,2,*, Tian Tan1, Wei Zhang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.57, No.2, pp. 269-281, 2018, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2018.03696

    Abstract Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is a key technology for integrating uncertain information from multiple sources. However, the combination rules can be paradoxical when the evidence seriously conflict with each other. In the paper, we propose a novel combination algorithm based on unsupervised Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) density clustering. In the proposed mechanism, firstly, the original evidence sets are preprocessed by DBSCAN density clustering, and a successfully focal element similarity criteria is used to mine the potential information between the evidence, and make a correct measure of the conflict evidence. Then, two More >

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