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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Superhydrophobic and Oleophobic UV-Curable Surface Engineering of Cellulose-Based Substrates

    José M. R. C. A. Santos*, Ana R. Sampaio, Joana Branquinho

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.1, pp. 31-40, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634123

    Abstract Cellulose-based materials are one of the most widely used materials provided by nature to mankind. In particular, cotton fi bers have been used for millennia to produce clothing items. This wide usage stems from the inherent properties of cotton fabrics such as hydrophilicity and permeability to water vapor. However, increasingly sophisticated uses for cotton-based clothing (e.g., technical textiles) demand specifi c properties such as hydrophobicity and oleophobicity for repellent functions. The current surface treatments used to attain these functionalities are based on thermally initiated polymerization reactions, using water-based formulations. Thus, the current technologies are energy- and water-intensive. The advantages of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Arterial Wall Compliance on the Pressure Drop across Coronary Artery Stenoses under Hyperemic Flow Condition

    Bhaskar Chandra Konala, Ashish Das, Rupak K Banerjee∗,†

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 1-20, 2011, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2011.008.001

    Abstract Hemodynamic endpoints such as flow and pressure drop are often measured during angioplasty procedures to determine the functional severity of a coronary artery stenosis. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of compliance of the arterial wall-stenosis on the pressure drop under hyperemic flows across coronary lesions. This study evaluates the influence in flow and pressure drop caused by variation in arterial-stenosis compliance for a wide range of stenosis severities. The flow and pressure drop were evaluated for three different severities of stenosis and tested for limiting scenarios of compliant models. The Mooney-Rivlin model defined the non-linear material… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Simulations of Blood Drop Spreading and Impact for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

    Chu Wang, Lucy T. Zhang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.98, No.1, pp. 41-67, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2014.098.041

    Abstract Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) in forensic science is an important tool to solve crime scenes. The complex dynamic behavior of blood drops poses great challenges for accurate fluid dynamic simulations. In this paper, we specifically focus on simulations of blood drop spreading and impact, which may involve contact line hysteresis and spattering of drops as they interact with solid surfaces. Here, we set up a numerical framework that combines (1) the connectivity-free front tracking (CFFT) method for modeling multiphase (air and liquid) flows and (2) a dynamic contact line model for modeling fluid-solid contact line. Both components are necessary in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Thermocapillary Motion of a Spherical Drop in a Spherical Cavity

    Tai C. Lee1, Huan J. Keh2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.93, No.5, pp. 317-333, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2013.093.317

    Abstract A theoretical study of the thermocapillary migration of a fluid sphere located at an arbitrary position inside a spherical cavity is presented in the quasisteady limit of small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers. The applied temperature gradient is perpendicular to the line through the drop and cavity centers. The general solutions to the energy and momentum equations governing the system are constructed from the superposition of their fundamental solutions in the spherical coordinates originating from the two centers, and the boundary conditions are satisfied by a multipole collocation method. Results for the thermocapillary migration velocity of the drop are obtained for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Low and High Velocity Impact Studies on Fabric Reinforced Concrete Panels

    Smitha Gopinath1, C.K. Madheswaran1, A. Rama Ch,ra Murthy1, Nagesh. R. Iyer2, Barkavi.T3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.92, No.2, pp. 151-172, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2013.092.151

    Abstract This paper presents the details of experimental and numerical investigations performed on fabric reinforced concrete (FABcrete) panels under impact loading. Experimental investigations have been carried out using drop weight impact on a square FABcrete panel to study the damage, failure mode and acceleration. The drop weight of 20 kg is used for the study and drop heights have been varied as 100mm, 200mm and 300mm. Numerical simulation of the drop weight impact tests on FABcrete panels have been carried out and observed that there is a good correlation between experimental and numerical predictions. It is observed that the FABcrete specimen… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Modelling of Turbulence Effects on Droplet Collision Dynamics using the Level Set Method

    Ashraf Balabel1,

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 283-301, 2012, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2012.089.283

    Abstract This paper presents a novel numerical method for solving the twophase flow problems with moving interfaces in either laminar or turbulent flow regimes. The developed numerical method is based on the solution of the Reynolds- Averaged Navier Stokes equations in both phases separately with appropriate boundary conditions located at the interface separating the two fluids. The solution algorithm is performed on a regular and structured two-dimensional computational grid using the control volume approach. The complex shapes as well as the geometrical quantities of the interface are determined via the level set method. The numerical method is firstly validated against the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mesoscopic Simulation of Binary Immiscible Fluids Flow in a Square Microchannel with Hydrophobic Surfaces

    S. Chen1,2, Y. Liu1,3, B.C. Khoo4, X.J. Fan5, J.T. Fan6

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 181-196, 2007, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2007.019.181

    Abstract The mesoscopic simulation for fluids flow in a square microchannel is investigated using dissipative particle dynamics. The velocity distribution for single fluid in a square channel is compared with the solutions of CFD solver, which is found to be in good agreement with each other. The no-slip boundary condition could be well held for the repulsive coefficient ranged from 9.68 to 18.0. For the same range of repulsive coefficient, various wettabilities could be obtained by changing the repulsive coefficient for binary immiscible fluids, in which the immiscible fluids are achieved by increasing the repulsive force between species. The typical motion… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling the Wetting Effects in Droplet Impingement using Particle Method

    Heng Xie1, Seiichi Koshizuka2, Yoshiaki Oka2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.18, No.1, pp. 1-16, 2007, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2007.018.001

    Abstract A model of a single liquid drop colliding on solid surface is developed based with Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method. The mathematical model involves gravity, viscosity and surface tension. The wettability between the impact liquid and the solid surface is modeled by the contact angle model and the non-slip boundary condition. The particles of the drop are divided into four types in which the model varies to simulate the liquid particles in different area. The model is validated by the comparison of the theoretical results. The complete dynamic process including the spreading, the recoiling, re-bouncing and splashing is simulated and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Analysis on Unsteady Internal Flow in an Evaporating Droplet

    Zhentao Wang1,*, Kai Dong, Shuiqing Zhan

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.13, No.4, pp. 221-234, 2017, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2017.013.221

    Abstract We have investigated the unsteady internal flow occurring in an evaporating droplet interacting with a high-temperature atmospheric environment. The Navier-Stokes equations for both the liquid and the gas phases have been solved numerically in the framework of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method relying on the so-called Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. A specific kernel able to account for evaporation and related phase change has been incorporated directly in the VOF approach. The temperature distributions within the droplet has been found to be relatively uniform by virtue of the Marangoni flow. The transient evolution of the flow pattern and related… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Note on the Transient Electrohydrodynamics of a Liquid Drop

    Asghar Esmaeeli1, Ali Behjatian1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.13, No.3, pp. 143-153, 2017, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2017.013.143

    Abstract The evolution of the flow field in and around a liquid drop in a unifor-m electric field for fluid systems corresponding to region (II) of the circulation-deformation map is fundamentally different than that for the rest of the map and has not been explored before. This is examined here and justified mathematical-ly. Furthermore a methodology is developed to predict the flow pattern, which is likely to be helpful in predicting the evolution of the flow field in more complex circumstances. More >

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