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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Energy Efficient Mobile Harvesting Scheme for Clustered SDWSN with Beamforming Technique

    Subaselvi Sundarraj*, Gunaseelan Konganathan

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.34, No.2, pp. 1197-1213, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.025026

    Abstract Software Defined Wireless Sensor Networks (SDWSN) provides a centralized scheduling algorithm to decrease energy consumption compared to WSN. The sensor nodes have a finite battery capacity in the SDWSN that reduces the lifetime of the nodes. To harvest energy for energy depleted nodes without interfering with the eventful data transfer in the clustered SDWSN, an energy efficient mobile harvesting scheme with the Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) beamforming technique is proposed. The mobile harvesting scheme transfer the energy to the energy starving node and the beamforming algorithm which transmits the energy in the desired direction increases the lifetime of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cognitive Radio Networks Using Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces

    Raed Alhamad*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.43, No.2, pp. 751-765, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021932

    Abstract In this article, we optimize harvesting and sensing duration for Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) using Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS). The secondary source harvests energy using the received signal from node A. Then, it performs spectrum sensing to detect Primary Source PS activity. When PS activity is not detected, The Secondary Source SS transmits data to Secondary Destination SD where all reflected signals on IRS are in phase at SD. We show that IRS offers 14, 20, 26, 32, 38, 44, 50 dB enhancement in throughput using M = 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 reflectors with respect to CRN without IRS. We… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Performance Analysis of Multi-Channel CR Enabled IoT Network with Better Energy Harvesting

    Afiya Kiran1, Ahmad Karim2,*, Yasser Obaid Alharbi3, Diaa Mohammed Uliyan3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 183-197, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021860

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be termed as an auto-configured and infrastructure-less wireless networks to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure and motion etc. WSNs may comprise thousands of Internet of Things (IoT) devices to sense and collect data from its surrounding, process the data and take an automated and mechanized decision. On the other side the proliferation of these devices will soon cause radio spectrum shortage. So, to facilitate these networks, we integrate Cognitive Radio (CR) functionality in these networks. CR can sense the unutilized spectrum of licensed users and then use these empty… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Efficient Energy Aware Routing Mechanism for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Wejdan Wasel Aljaghthami*, Mohammad Haseeb Zafar, Afraa Zuhair Attiah

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 1111-1126, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019912

    Abstract The accelerated development of wireless network technology has resulted in the emergence of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), which is a technology commonly used in the medical field. WBAN consists of tiny sensor nodes that interconnect with each other and set in the human body to collect and transmit the patient data to the physician, to monitor the patients remotely. These nodes typically have limited battery energy that led to a shortage of network lifetime. Therefore, energy efficiency is considered one of the most demanding challenges in routing design for WBAN. Many proposed routing mechanisms in WBAN did not cover… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Improving Functionality of 2DOF Piezoelectric Cantilever for Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Magnets

    Junxiang Jiang1,2, Shaogang Liu1,*, Lifeng Feng3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.5, pp. 1287-1303, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015354

    Abstract This paper presents a 2DOF nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester for improving the efficiency of energy harvesting in low frequency range. The device consisted of an L-shaped piezoelectric cantilever with a magnet at the tip of the first beam and two external magnets on the pedestal. The distance between the magnets which generated nonlinear magnetic attraction was adjusted such that the system can exhibit monostable or bistable characteristics. First, the model of this piezoelectric energy harvester was established and the dynamic equation was derived based on the magnetic attractive force. Then, the nonlinear dynamic responses of the system subject to harmonic… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design of a Five-Band Dual-Port Rectenna for RF Energy Harvesting

    Surajo Muhammad1,*, Jun Jiat Tiang1, Sew Kin Wong1, Jamel Nebhen2, Amjad Iqbal1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 487-501, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.018292

    Abstract This paper proposed the design of a dual-port rectifier with multi-frequency operations. The RF rectifier is achieved using a combination of L-section inductive impedance matching network (IMN) at Port-1 with a multiple stubs impedance transformer at Port-2. The fabricated prototype can harvest RF signal from GSM/900, GSM/1800, UMTS/2100, Wi-Fi/2.45 and LTE/2600 frequency bands at (0.94, 1.80, 2.10, 2.46, and 2.63 GHz), respectively. The rectifier occupies a small portion of a PCB board at 0.20 λg × 0.15 λg. The proposed circuit realized a measured peak RF-to-dc (radio frequency direct current) power conversion efficiency (PCE) of (21%, 22.76%, 25.33%, 21.57%, and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cross-Layer Design for EH Systems with Finite Buffer Constraints

    Mohammed Baljon, Shailendra Mishra*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 129-144, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017509

    Abstract Energy harvesting (EH) technology in wireless communication is a promising approach to extend the lifetime of future wireless networks. A cross-layer optimal adaptation policy for a point-to-point energy harvesting (EH) wireless communication system with finite buffer constraints over a Rayleigh fading channel based on a Semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) is investigated. Most adaptation strategies in the literature are based on channel-dependent adaptation. However, besides considering the channel, the state of the energy capacitor and the data buffer are also involved when proposing a dynamic modulation policy for EH wireless networks. Unlike the channel-dependent policy, which is a physical layer-based optimization,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Resonator Rectenna Design Based on Metamaterials for Low-RF Energy Harvesting

    Watcharaphon Naktong1, Amnoiy Ruengwaree1,*, Nuchanart Fhafhiem2, Piyaporn Krachodnok3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1731-1750, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015843

    Abstract In this paper, the design of a resonator rectenna, based on metamaterials and capable of harvesting radio-frequency energy at 2.45 GHz to power any low-power devices, is presented. The proposed design uses a simple and inexpensive circuit consisting of a microstrip patch antenna with a mushroom-like electromagnetic band gap (EBG), partially reflective surface (PRS) structure, rectifier circuit, voltage multiplier circuit, and 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi module. The mushroom-like EBG sheet was fabricated on an FR4 substrate surrounding the conventional patch antenna to suppress surface waves so as to enhance the antenna performance. Furthermore, the antenna performance was improved more by utilizing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Compact Dual-Port Multi-Band Rectifier Circuit for RF Energy Harvesting

    Surajo Muhammad1,*, Jun Jiat Tiang1, Sew Kin Wong1, Amjad Iqbal1, Amor Smida2, Mohamed Karim Azizi3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.1, pp. 167-184, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016133

    Abstract This paper presents a compact multi-band rectifier with an improved impedance matching bandwidth. It uses a combination of п–matching network (MN) at Port-1, with a parallel connection of three cell branch MN at Port-2. The proposed impedance matching network (IMN) is adopted to reduce circuit complexity, to improve circuit performance, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier at low input power. The fabricated rectifier prototype operates at 0.92, 1.82, 2.1, 2.46 and 2.65 GHz covering GSM/900, GSM/1800, UMTS2100, and Wi-Fi/2.45–LTE2600. The size of the compact rectifier on the PCB board is 0.13λg × 0.1λg. The fabricated rectifier achieved an… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Energy Efficient Resource Allocation Approach for Renewable Energy Powered Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    Yifei Wei1, *, Yu Gong1, Qiao Li1, Mei Song1, *, Xiaojun Wang2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.64, No.1, pp. 501-514, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.010048

    Abstract In this paper, maximizing energy efficiency (EE) through radio resource allocation for renewable energy powered heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNet) with energy sharing, is investigated. Our goal is to maximize the network EE, conquer the instability of renewable energy sources and guarantee the fairness of users during allocating resources. We define the objective function as a sum weighted EE of all links in the HetNet. We formulate the resource allocation problem in terms of subcarrier assignment, power allocation and energy sharing, as a mixed combinatorial and non-convex optimization problem. We propose an energy efficient resource allocation scheme, including a centralized resource… More >

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