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  • Open Access


    A Review of Graphene Oxide Crosslinking as Enhanced Corrosion Shield Application

    Nurul Anis Athirah Ab Aziz*, Chin Wei Lai*, Boon Hoong Ong

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 2745-2770, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025899

    Abstract Nowadays, corrosion is not only undesirable, but it also has a significant influence on the industrial sectors and technical innovations that have demand for metals. The global economic damage is expected to reach $2.5 trillion, equivalent to more than 3.4% of the world’s GDP in 2013. It is linked with significant financial harm, manufacturing pollution, and safety issues. An electrochemical process primarily induces metal corrosion at the metalelectrolyte interface region, caused by steel oxidation and the reduction of oxygen, protons, and water. Therefore, organic and epoxy coatings can be applied as protective coatings. Additionally, it can prevent metal corrosion in… More > Graphic Abstract

    A Review of Graphene Oxide Crosslinking as Enhanced Corrosion Shield Application

  • Open Access


    Phosphorylated Salicylic Acid as Flame Retardant in Epoxy Resins and Composites

    Lara Greiner1,*, Philipp Kukla2, Sebastian Eibl1, Manfred Döring3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1931-1950, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019548

    Abstract A novel, versatile flame retardant substructure based on phosphorylated salicylic acid (SCP) is described and used in the synthesis of new flame retardants for HexFlow® RTM6, a high-performance epoxy resin used in resin transfer molding processes as composite matrix. The starting material salicylic acid can be obtained from natural sources. SCP as reactive phosphorus chloride is converted with a novolak, a novolak containing 9, 10-dihydro-9- oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) substituents or DOPO-hydroquinone to flame retardants with sufficient thermal stability and high char yield. Additionally, these flame retardants are soluble in the resin as well as react into the epoxy network. The determined… More >

  • Open Access


    A Study on a Magnesium-Based Layered Composite Used as a Flame Retardant for Phenolic Epoxy Resins

    Hongxiang Liu1,2,,*, Neng Xiong1,2, Songli Wang1,2, Wei Zhang1,2, Bo Yong1,2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.18, No.3, pp. 549-561, 2022, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2022.017979


    The effects of a magnesium-based layered composite on the flammability of a phenolic epoxy resin (EP) are studied. In order to produce the required composite material, first, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum salt and deionized water are mixed into a reactor according to a certain proportion to induce a hydrothermal reaction; then, the feed liquid is filtered out using a solid-liquid separation procedure; finally, the material is dried and crushed. In order to evaluate its effects on the flammability of the EP, first, m-phenylenediamine is added to EP and vacuum defoamation is performed; then, EP is poured into a polytetrafluoroethylene mold, cooled… More >

  • Open Access


    Bio-Based Hyperbranched Toughener From Tannic Acid and Its Enhanced Solvent-Free Epoxy Resin with High Performance

    Jie Xu1,3, Jiayao Yang1, Peng Lin2, Xiaohuan Liu1,*, Jinjie Zhang1, Shenyuan Fu1,*, Yuxun Tang2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1333-1346, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07905

    Abstract It is essential to design economic and efficient tougheners to prepare high-performance epoxy resin; however, this has remained a huge challenge. Herein, an eco-friendly, low-cost, and facile-fabricated bio-based hyperbranched toughener, carboxylic acid-functionalized tannic acid (CATA), was successfully prepared and applicated to the preparation of solvent-free epoxy resins. The mechanical performance, morphology, structural characterization, and thermal characterization of toughened epoxy resin system were studied. The toughened epoxy resin system with only 1.0wt% CATA reached the highest impact strength, 111% higher than the neat epoxy resin system. Notably, the tensile strength and elongation at break of toughened epoxy resin systems increased moderately… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Epoxidized Jatropha Oil on the Cure, Thermal, Morphological and Viscoelastic Properties of Epoxy Resins

    A. Sammaiah1, K. V. Padmaja1, K. I. Suresh*,2, R. B. N. Prasad1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 113-122, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2015.634118

    Abstract This article reports the effect of epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) on the thermal, cure and viscoelastic properties of epoxy resins. Epoxidized jatropha oil with an oxirane value of 5.0 was prepared and epoxy formulations containing different concentrations of EJO were evaluated for cure, morphology, thermal and viscoelastic properties. The curing temperature of the formulations increased with increasing EJO content. The glass transition temperature of the cured films decreased from 56 °C for unmodified epoxy resin to 23 °C for the sample with 60 wt% EJO reactive diluent, suggesting good plasticizing action. The thermal decomposition was only marginally affected. More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling of Moisture Diffusion in Permeable Particle-Reinforced Epoxy Resins Using Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Hybrid Moisture Element Method

    D.S. Liu1,2, Z.H. Fong1, I.H. Lin1, Z.W. Zhuang1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.93, No.6, pp. 441-468, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2013.093.441

    Abstract In this study, we proposed a novel numerical technique to simulate the transient moisture diffusion process and to apply it to heterogeneous composite resins. The method is based on a heterogeneous hybrid moisture element (HHME), with properties determined through an equivalent hybrid moisture capacitance/ conductance matrix that was calculated using the conventional finite element formulation in space discretization and the q-method in time discretization, with similar mass/stiffness properties and matrix condensing operations. A coupled HHME with finite element scheme was developed and implemented in the computer code by using the commercial software MATLAB to analyze the transient moisture diffusion process… More >

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