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  • Open Access


    Energy Efficient Unequal Fault Tolerance Clustering Approach

    Sowjanya Ramisetty1,2, Divya Anand2, Kavita3,*, Sahil Verma3, NZ Jhanjhi4, Mehedi Masud5, Mohammed Baz6

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 1971-1983, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021924

    Abstract For achieving Energy-Efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), different schemes have been proposed which focuses only on reducing the energy consumption. A shortest path determines for the Base Station (BS), but fault tolerance and energy balancing gives equal importance for improving the network lifetime. For saving energy in WSNs, clustering is considered as one of the effective methods for Wireless Sensor Networks. Because of the excessive overload, more energy consumed by cluster heads (CHs) in a cluster based WSN to receive and aggregate the information from member sensor nodes and it leads to failure. For… More >

  • Open Access


    Fault Tolerant Optical Mark Recognition

    Qamar Hafeez1, Waqar Aslam1, M. Ikramullah Lali2, Shafiq Ahmad3, Mejdal Alqahtani3, Muhammad Shafiq4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.2, pp. 3829-3847, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.026422

    Abstract Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) systems have been studied since 1970. It is widely accepted as a data entry technique. OMR technology is used for surveys and multiple-choice questionnaires. Due to its ease of use, OMR technology has grown in popularity over the past two decades and is widely used in universities and colleges to automatically grade and grade student responses to questionnaires. The accuracy of OMR systems is very important due to the environment in which they are used. The OMR algorithm relies on pixel projection or Hough transform to determine the exact answer in… More >

  • Open Access


    Gorilla Troops Optimizer Based Fault Tolerant Aware Scheduling Scheme for Cloud Environment

    R. Rengaraj alias Muralidharan1,*, K. Latha2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.35, No.2, pp. 1923-1937, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.029495

    Abstract In cloud computing (CC), resources are allocated and offered to the clients transparently in an on-demand way. Failures can happen in CC environment and the cloud resources are adaptable to fluctuations in the performance delivery. Task execution failure becomes common in the CC environment. Therefore, fault-tolerant scheduling techniques in CC environment are essential for handling performance differences, resource fluxes, and failures. Recently, several intelligent scheduling approaches have been developed for scheduling tasks in CC with no consideration of fault tolerant characteristics. With this motivation, this study focuses on the design of Gorilla Troops Optimizer Based… More >

  • Open Access


    Ripple+: An Improved Scheme of Ripple Consensus Protocol in Deployability, Liveness and Timing Assumption

    Chuanwang Ma1,*, Yu Zhang1,2, Binxing Fang1,2, Hongli Zhang1, Yidong Jin3, Dasheng Zhou3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.130, No.1, pp. 463-481, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.016838

    Abstract Ripple acts as a real-time settlement and payment system to connect banks and payment providers. As the consensus support of the Ripple network to ensure network consistency, Ripple consensus protocol has been widely concerned in recent years. Compared with those Byzantine fault tolerant protocols, Ripple has a significant difference that the system can reach an agreement under decentralized trust model. However, Ripple has many problems both in theory and practice, which are mentioned in the previous researches. This paper presents Ripple+, an improved scheme of Ripple consensus protocol, which improves Ripple from three aspects: (1)… More >

  • Open Access


    Fault Tolerant Suffix Trees

    Iftikhar Ahmad1,*, Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah1, Ambreen Shahnaz2, Sadeeq Jan1, Salma Noor2, Wajeeha Khalil1, Fazal Qudus Khan3, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.1, pp. 157-164, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.012946

    Abstract Classical algorithms and data structures assume that the underlying memory is reliable, and the data remain safe during or after processing. However, the assumption is perilous as several studies have shown that large and inexpensive memories are vulnerable to bit flips. Thus, the correctness of output of a classical algorithm can be threatened by a few memory faults. Fault tolerant data structures and resilient algorithms are developed to tolerate a limited number of faults and provide a correct output based on the uncorrupted part of the data. Suf- fix tree is one of the important… More >

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