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  • Open Access


    Analyzing the Urban Hierarchical Structure Based on Multiple Indicators of Economy and Industry: An Econometric Study in China

    Jing Cheng1, Yang Xie2, Jie Zhang1,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.131, No.3, pp. 1831-1855, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.020178

    Abstract For a city, analyzing its advantages, disadvantages and the level of economic development in a country is important, especially for the cities in China developing at flying speed. The corresponding literatures for the cities in China have not considered the indicators of economy and industry in detail. In this paper, based on multiple indicators of economy and industry, the urban hierarchical structure of 285 cities above the prefecture level in China is investigated. The indicators from the economy, industry, infrastructure, medical care, population, education, culture, and employment levels are selected to establish a new indicator system for analyzing urban hierarchical… More >

  • Open Access


    A Soy Protein-Based Composite Film with a Hierarchical Structure Inspired by Nacre

    Yecheng Xu1, Chaojie Xu1, Mingsong Chen1, Jianzhang Li1, Ling Zeng2, Jing Luo3, Qiang Gao1,*, Sheldon Q. Shi4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 639-652, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018509

    Abstract Soy protein-based composite film is a potential replacement for petroleum-based film with multipurpose applications and cleaner production. It is difficult to improve both the tensile strength and toughness of a protein-based film without sacrificing its elongation. In this study, inspired by the hierarchical structure of nacre, a facile yet delicate strategy was developed to fabricate a novel bio-based film with excellent toughness and high strength. Triglycidylamine (TGA) crosslinked soy protein (SPI) as hard phase and thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) as soft phase comprise an alternative lay-up hierarchical structure. The interface of these two phases is enhanced using triglycidylamine (TGA) surface-modified… More >

  • Open Access


    Functionally Graded Cellular Structure Design Using the Subdomain Level Set Method with Local Volume Constraints

    Lianxiong Chen1, Hui Liu1,*, Xihua Chu1,2, Jiao Wang3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.128, No.3, pp. 1197-1218, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.016894

    Abstract Functional graded cellular structure (FGCS) usually shows superior mechanical behavior with low density and high stiffness. With the development of additive manufacturing, functional graded cellular structure gains its popularity in industries. In this paper, a novel approach for designing functionally graded cellular structure is proposed based on a subdomain parameterized level set method (PLSM) under local volume constraints (LVC). In this method, a subdomain level set function is defined, parameterized and updated on each subdomain independently making the proposed approach much faster and more cost-effective. Additionally, the microstructures on arbitrary two adjacent subdomains can be connected perfectly without any additional… More >

  • Open Access


    Micro Hierarchical Structure and Mechanical Property of Sparrow Hawk (Accipiter nisus) Feather Shaf

    Yichen Lu1, Zongning Chen1, Enyu Guo1,*, Xiangqing Kong2, Huijun Kang1, Yanjin Xu3, Rengeng Li4, Guohua Fan4, Tongmin Wang1,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.127, No.2, pp. 705-720, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.015426

    Abstract In this study, the real 3D model of the feather shaft that is composed of medulla and cortex is characterized by X-ray computer tomography, and the structural features are quantitatively analyzed. Compression and tensile tests are conducted to evaluate the mechanical performance of the feather shaft and cortex at different regions. The analysis of the 3D model shows that the medulla accounts for ∼70% of the shaft volume and exhibits a closed-cell foam-like structure, with a porosity of 59%. The cells in the medulla show dodecahedron and decahedron morphology and have an equivalent diameter of ∼30 μm. In axial compression,… More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Phenomenology: Virtual Testing of the Hierarchical Structure of a Bundle of Strands

    D.P. Boso1, M. Lefik2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.55, No.3, pp. 319-338, 2010, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2010.055.319

    Abstract In this paper we study numerically the mechanical behaviour of wire ropes, particularly the influence of the geometrical configuration on the overall stiffness of the cables. Modelling the behaviour of a cable is a difficult problem, given the complexity of the geometrical layout, contact phenomena occurring among wires and possible yielding of the material. For this reason we pursue a "hierarchical beam approach", to substitute recursively, at each cabling stage, the bundle of wires with an equivalent single strand, having the characteristics computed from the previous level. We consider the first two levels of the bundle hierarchy and investigate the… More >

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