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  • Open Access


    Empirical Thermal Investigation of Oil–Immersed Distribution Transformer under Various Loading Conditions

    Syed Ali Raza*, Ahsan Ullah, Shuang He, Yifeng Wang, Jiangtao Li

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.129, No.2, pp. 829-847, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2021.017360

    Abstract The distribution transformer is the mainstay of the power system. Its internal temperature study is desirable for its safe operation in the power system. The purpose of the present study is to determine direct comprehensive thermal distribution in the distribution transformers for different loading conditions. To achieve this goal, the temperature distribution in the oil, core, and windings are studied at each loading. An experimental study is performed with a 10/0.38 kV, 10 kVA oil–immersed transformer equipped with forty–two PT100 sensors (PTs) for temperature measurement installed inside during its manufacturing process. All possible locations for the hottest spot temperature (HST)… More >

  • Open Access


    Ziegler–Nichols Customization for Quadrotor Attitude Control under Empty and Full Loading Conditions

    Ivan Paulo Canal1,*, Manuel Martin Pérez Reimbold2, Maurício de Campos2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.125, No.1, pp. 65-75, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2020.010741

    Abstract An aircraft quadrotor is a complex control system that allows for great flexibility in flight. Controlling multirotor aerial systems such as quadrotors is complex because the variables involved are not always available, known, and accurate. The inclusion of payload changes the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft, making it necessary to adapt the control system for this situation. Among the various control methods that have been investigated, proportional-integralderivative (PID) control offers good results and simplicity of application; however, achieving stability and high performance is challenging, with the most critical task being tuning the controller gains. The Ziegler–Nichols (ZN) theory was used… More >

  • Open Access


    Fracture Behavior in AFM-Specimen with Single Crack under Different Loading Conditions

    Qing-fen Li1, Li Zhu1, Shi-fan Zhu1, F-G Buchholz1

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.6, No.3&4, pp. 273-288, 2010, DOI:10.3970/sdhm.2010.006.273

    Abstract The fracture behavior in all fracture mode (AFM)-specimen with a single edged crack under different loading conditions is investigated by the aid of the commercial ANSYS code. The separated strain energy release rates (SERRs) along the crack front are calculated by the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI)-method. It is shown that the computational results of the AFM-specimen are in good agreement with some available findings for pure mode I, mode II, mode III, and mixed-mode I+III loading conditions. Furthermore, the crack growth problems under complex mixed-mode II+III loading condition by using the AFM-specimen, are investigated and results show that… More >

  • Open Access


    Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Size of Damage Process Zone of a Concrete Specimen under Mixed-Mode Loading Conditions

    X.P. Shen1, J.L. Feng2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.20, No.2, pp. 185-204, 2010, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2010.020.185

    Abstract The characteristic length of a gradient-dependent damage model is a key parameter, which is usually regarded as the length of damage process zone (DPZ). Value and evolution of the size of DPZ were investigated by both a numerical method and an experimental manner. In the numerical study, the geometrical model adopted was a set of four-point shearing beams; the numerical tool used was the Abaqus/Explicit software. The distance between the front and end of a complete DPZ was obtained. Values of strain components at these points were given out at given time points. The experimental study of the evolution process… More >

  • Open Access


    Effects of Loading Conditions on Deformation Process in Indentation

    M. Demiral, A. Roy, V. V. Silberschmidt1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.19, No.2, pp. 199-216, 2010, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2010.019.199

    Abstract Static indentation experiments are typically performed to characterize the mechanical properties of a material of interest by a rigid indenter of known geometry to various depths. In contrast, dynamic indentation of materials has not been fully studied. Evaluating material performance under dynamic loading conditions is a challenge and we demonstrate that various modelling schemes may be appropriate for different flavours of dynamic indentation. In order to compare underlying thermo-mechanics and deformation processes in a static and dynamic indentation process, indentation of a rigid indenter into a workpiece to a fixed chosen penetration is extensively studied. A nonlinear strain rate and… More >

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