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  • Open Access


    A Comparison of Shale Gas Fracturing Based on Deep and Shallow Shale Reservoirs in the United States and China

    Qixing Zhang1,2, Bing Hou1,2,*, Huiwen Pang1,2, Shan Liu1,2, Yue Zeng1,2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.133, No.3, pp. 471-507, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.020831

    Abstract China began to build its national shale gas demonstration area in 2012. The central exploration, drilling, and development technologies for medium and shallow marine shale reservoirs with less than 3,500 m of buried depth in Changning-Weiyuan, Zhaotong, and other regions had matured. In this study, we macroscopically investigated the development history of shale gas in the United States and China and compared the physical and mechanical conditions of deep and shallow reservoirs. The comparative results revealed that the main reasons for the order-ofmagnitude difference between China’s annual shale gas output and the United States could be attributed to three aspects:… More >

  • Open Access


    DNNBoT: Deep Neural Network-Based Botnet Detection and Classification

    Mohd Anul Haq, Mohd Abdul Rahim Khan*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 1729-1750, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020938

    Abstract The evolution and expansion of IoT devices reduced human efforts, increased resource utilization, and saved time; however, IoT devices create significant challenges such as lack of security and privacy, making them more vulnerable to IoT-based botnet attacks. There is a need to develop efficient and faster models which can work in real-time with efficiency and stability. The present investigation developed two novels, Deep Neural Network (DNN) models, DNNBoT1 and DNNBoT2, to detect and classify well-known IoT botnet attacks such as Mirai and BASHLITE from nine compromised industrial-grade IoT devices. The utilization of PCA was made to feature extraction and improve… More >

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