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  • Open Access


    Biochar Effectively Reduces Ammonia Volatilization From Nitrogen-Applied Soils in Tea and Bamboo Plantations

    Lei Chu, H. M. K. Darshika Hennayake, Haijun Sun*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 261-267, 2019, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2019.07791

    Abstract Intensive practices in forest soils result in dramatic nitrogen (N) losses, particularly ammonia (NH3) volatilization, to adjacent environmental areas. A soil column experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar on NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soils. The results showed that biochar amendment effectively reduced NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soil by 79.2% and 75.5%, respectively. The soil pH values increased by 0.53-0.61 units after biochar application. The NH4+-N and total N of both soils were 13.8-29.7% and 34.0-41.9% higher under the biochar treatments than under the control treatment, More >

  • Open Access


    Towards Computational Design of Single Transition Metal Atom Catalysts for Nitrogen Fixation

    Xiongyi Liang*, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.22, No.1, pp. 113-113, 2019, DOI:10.32604/icces.2019.05079

    Abstract Ammonia (NH3) plays an essential role in agriculture to meet global population explosion. Although the atmosphere consists of more than 78% of Nitrogen (N2), industrial NH3 synthesis from atmospheric N2 gas requires harsh conditions of temperature (700~850 K) and pressure (50~200 atm), which annually consuming 2% of the world’s power. Recently, an electrocatalytic NH3 fixation process under ambient condition was introduced. With this, six protons and electrons are gradually added (6H+ + 6e- + N2= 2NH3), instead of breaking the triple bonds of N2 in the traditional method, thus saving dramatic amount of energy. Along this theme, the synthesis of NH3More >

  • Open Access


    On the Vortex Formation Effect During the Application of a Nitrogen-Gas Assisted Laser-Fusion Cutting Technique to Stainless Steel

    S. Aggoune1, C. Abid2, E.H. Amara1,3

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 115-125, 2015, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2015.011.115

    Abstract This paper focuses on the vortex formation effect during the application of a laser-fusion cutting technique. This industrial technique is typically associated with the ejection of a film of molten stainless steel blown off by a subsonic laminar jet of nitrogen gas used to assist the process. Without taking into account the transverse movement of the workpiece, we consider a 4 mm thick stainless steel plate. The resulting molten metal flow is assumed to be laminar, steady, viscous and incompressible. The numerical results reveal vortex structures adjacent to the walls at the entrance of the More >

  • Open Access


    The Influence of Annealing in Nitrogen Atmosphere on the Electrical, Optical and Structural Properties of Spray-Deposited ZnO Thin Films

    Shadia J Ikhmayies1, Naseem M. Abu El-Haija2, Riyad N. Ahmad-Bitar3

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 219-232, 2010, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2010.006.219

    Abstract Large area and highly uniform polycrystalline ZnO thin films have been produced by a spray pyrolysis (SP) technique resorting to a customized system (spraying) on glass substrates at temperature Ts= 450℃. This study deals with the related investigation about the influence of heat treatment (in nitrogen atmosphere) on the resulting properties (electrical, optical and structural) of such films. Properties are analyzed by means of I-V plots, transmittance curves, X-Ray diffractograms (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Results show that the resistivity of the films decreases from about 200W.cm for the as-deposited films to about… More >

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