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  • Open Access


    GM-CSF-Loaded Nanoparticles for Photothermal-Assisted Immunotherapy against Orthotopic Bladder Cancer

    Weifeng Ren1,2,#, Xiaomeng Cai2,3,#, Jun Chen2,3,#, Lifo Ruan2,3, Huiru Lu2, Jiayu Zhang2,3, Yi Hu2,3,*, Jimin Gao1,*

    Oncologie, Vol.23, No.3, pp. 359-371, 2021, DOI:10.32604/Oncologie.2021.018605

    Abstract This study reported the construction of GM-CSF-loaded chitosan/graphene oxide nanoparticles for photothermal therapy-assisted immunotherapy against murine orthotopic bladder cancer. The encapsulated GM-CSF in chitosan/graphene oxide nanoparticles facilitated their immobilization on biotinylated mouse orthotopic bladder cancer surface, resulting in slow release of antitumor immune adjuvant. Locally released GM-CSF efficiently recruited dendritic cells to bladder tumor sites, thereby promoting immune responses in mice. Thus, the activated immune response in mice provided enhanced antitumor effects. Meanwhile, the thermal effect from the nanoparticles upon light irradiation induced a significant increase in dendritic cells and T cells compared with other More >

  • Open Access


    Biomedical overview of melanin. 1. Updating melanin biology and chemistry, physico-chemical properties, melanoma tumors, and photothermal therapy


    BIOCELL, Vol.45, No.4, pp. 849-862, 2021, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.015900

    Abstract Melanins (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and allomelanin) represent a very, if not the most, important group of biological pigments. Their biological roles are multiple, from photoprotection to antioxidant activity, heavy metal disposal or the myriad uses of color in organisms across all Phyla. In the first part of this review, eumelanin biology and some chemical aspects will be presented, as well as key physico-chemical features that make this biological pigment so interesting. The principal characteristics of the melanocyte, the melanin-synthesizing cell in mammals, will also be introduced. Transformed melanocytes are the cause of one of the most More >

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