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GM-CSF-Loaded Nanoparticles for Photothermal-Assisted Immunotherapy against Orthotopic Bladder Cancer

Weifeng Ren1,2,#, Xiaomeng Cai2,3,#, Jun Chen2,3,#, Lifo Ruan2,3, Huiru Lu2, Jiayu Zhang2,3, Yi Hu2,3,*, Jimin Gao1,*
1 Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology & Application of Model Organisms, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, China
2 CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 100049, China
3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China
* Corresponding Authors: Yi Hu. Email: ; Jimin Gao. Email:

Oncologie 2021, 23(3), 359-371.

Received 05 August 2021; Accepted 08 September 2021; Issue published 26 September 2021


This study reported the construction of GM-CSF-loaded chitosan/graphene oxide nanoparticles for photothermal therapy-assisted immunotherapy against murine orthotopic bladder cancer. The encapsulated GM-CSF in chitosan/graphene oxide nanoparticles facilitated their immobilization on biotinylated mouse orthotopic bladder cancer surface, resulting in slow release of antitumor immune adjuvant. Locally released GM-CSF efficiently recruited dendritic cells to bladder tumor sites, thereby promoting immune responses in mice. Thus, the activated immune response in mice provided enhanced antitumor effects. Meanwhile, the thermal effect from the nanoparticles upon light irradiation induced a significant increase in dendritic cells and T cells compared with other groups, which confirmed that the focal photothermal effect potentiated antitumor immune response to tumors.


Nanoparticles; SA-mGM-CSF; bladder cancer; immunotherapy; photothermal therapy

Cite This Article

Ren, W., Cai, X., Chen, J., Ruan, L., Lu, H. et al. (2021). GM-CSF-Loaded Nanoparticles for Photothermal-Assisted Immunotherapy against Orthotopic Bladder Cancer. Oncologie, 23(3), 359–371.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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