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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vapor and Pressure Sensors Based on Cellulose Nanofibers and Carbon Nanotubes Aerogel with Thermoelectric Properties

    Rajendran Muthuraj, Abhishek Sachan, Mickael Castro*, Jean-François Feller, Bastien Seantier*, Yves Grohens

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 277-287, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634182

    Abstract In this work, thermally insulating and electrically conductive aerogels were prepared from cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The thermal conductivity of neat CNF aerogel is 24 mW/(m·K) with a density of 0.025 g/cm3. With the addition of CNTs into CNF aerogel, the electrical conductivity was significantly increased while the thermal conductivity was increased to 38 mW/(m·K). Due to these interesting properties, the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit (ZT) of the CNF/CNTs aerogels were measured and showed that CNF/CNTs aerogel thermoelectric properties can be improved. The compressibility and electrical resistance of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Paracetamol Sensitive Cellulose-Based Electrochemical Sensors

    Maxime Pontié1*, Serge Foukmeniok Mbokou1,2, Jean-Philippe Bouchara1, Bienvenue Razafimandimby1, Sylvie Egloff1, Ornella Dzilingomo1, Pierre-Yves Pontalier3, Ignas Kenfack Tonle<

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 242-250, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634169

    Abstract Electrochemical determination of paracetamol (PCT) was successfully performed using carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) modified with treated coffee husks (CHt) or cellulose powder (Ce). Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize unmodified or modified CPEs prior to their use. The electrochemical oxidation of PCT was investigated using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The oxidation current density of PCT was two-fold higher with the CPE-CHt sensor and 30% higher with CPE-Ce in comparison with the unmodified CPE, and this correlated with the higher hydrophilicity of the modified electrodes. Using SWV for the electrochemical analysis of PCT, carbon paste electrode… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Nanocellulose-Enabled Electronics, Energy Harvesting Devices, Smart Materials and Sensors: A Review

    Ronald Sabo1*, Aleksey Yermakov2, Chiu Tai Law3, Rani Elhajjar4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 297-312, 2016, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634114

    Abstract Cellulose nanomaterials have a number of interesting and unique properties that make them well-suited for use in electronics applications such as energy harvesting devices, actuators and sensors. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have good mechanical properties, high transparency, and low coefficient of thermal expansion, among other properties that facilitate both active and inactive roles in electronics and related devices. For example, these nanomaterials have been demonstrated to operate as substrates for flexible electronics and displays, to improve the efficiency of photovoltaics, to work as a component of magnetostrictive composites and to act as a suitable lithium ion battery separator membrane. A… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of Bus Ride Comfort Using Smartphone Sensor Data

    Hoong-Chor Chin1, Xingting Pang1, Zhaoxia Wang2,3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.2, pp. 455-463, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05664

    Abstract Passenger comfort is an important indicator that is often used to measure the quality of public transport services. It may also be a crucial factor in the passenger’s choice of transport mode. The typical method of assessing passenger comfort is through a passenger interview survey which can be tedious. This study aims to investigate the relationship between bus ride comfort based on ride smoothness and the vehicle’s motion detected by the smartphone sensors. An experiment was carried out on a bus fixed route within the University campus where comfort levels were rated on a 3-point scale and recorded at 5-second… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Improved MDS-MAP Localization Algorithm Based on Weighted Clustering and Heuristic Merging for Anisotropic Wireless Networks with Energy Holes

    Jing Wang1,*, Xiaohe Qiu1, Yuanfei Tu1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.1, pp. 227-244, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05281

    Abstract The MDS-MAP (multidimensional scaling-MAP) localization algorithm utilize almost merely connectivity information, and therefore it is easy to implement in practice of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Anisotropic networks with energy hole, however, has blind communication spots that cause loss of information in the merging phase of MDSMAP. To enhance the positioning accuracy, the authors propose an MDS-MAP (CH) algorithm which can improve the clustering and merging strategy. In order to balance the effect of energy consumption and the network topology stabilization, we present a weighted clustering scheme, which considers the residual energy, the degree of connectivity nodes and node density. As… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    EIAS: An Efficient Identity-Based Aggregate Signature Scheme for WSNs Against Coalition Attack

    Yong Xie1, Fang Xu2, Xiang Li1, Songsong Zhang1, Xiaodan Zhang1,*, Muhammad Israr3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.59, No.3, pp. 903-924, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05309

    Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are the major contributors to big data acquisition. The authenticity and integrity of the data are two most important basic requirements for various services based on big data. Data aggregation is a promising method to decrease operation cost for resource-constrained WSNs. However, the process of data acquisitions in WSNs are in open environments, data aggregation is vulnerable to more special security attacks with hiding feature and subjective fraudulence, such as coalition attack. Aimed to provide data authenticity and integrity protection for WSNs, an efficient and secure identity-based aggregate signature scheme (EIAS) is proposed in this paper.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Maximum Data Generation Rate Routing Protocol Based on Data Flow Controlling Technology for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks

    Demin Gao1, 2, *, Shuo Zhang1, Fuquan Zhang1, Xijian Fan1, Jinchi Zhang1,∗

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.59, No.2, pp. 649-667, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05195

    Abstract For rechargeable wireless sensor networks, limited energy storage capacity, dynamic energy supply, low and dynamic duty cycles cause that it is unpractical to maintain a fixed routing path for packets delivery permanently from a source to destination in a distributed scenario. Therefore, before data delivery, a sensor has to update its waking schedule continuously and share them to its neighbors, which lead to high energy expenditure for reestablishing path links frequently and low efficiency of energy utilization for collecting packets. In this work, we propose the maximum data generation rate routing protocol based on data flow controlling technology. For a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stress Concentrations Caused by Embedded Optical Fiber Sensors in Composite Laminates

    Kunigal Shivakumar1, Anil Bhargava2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 173-190, 2004, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2004.001.173

    Abstract The fiber optic sensor (FOS) embedded perpendicular to reinforcing fibers causes an `Eye' shaped defect. The length is about 16 times fiber optic radius (RFos) and height is about 2RFos. The eye contains fiber optics in the center surrounded by an elongated resin pocket. Embedding FOS causes geometric distortion of the reinforcing fiber over a height equal to 6 to 8 RFos. This defect causes severe stress concentration at the root of the resin pocket, the interface (in the composite) between the optical fiber and the composite, and at 90° to load direction in the composite. The stress concentration was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A PSO based Energy Efficient Coverage Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Jin Wang1,2, Chunwei Ju2, Yu Gao2, Arun Kumar Sangaiah3, Gwang-jun Kim4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.56, No.3, pp. 433-446, 2018, DOI: 10.3970/cmc.2018.04132

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are large-scale and high-density networks that typically have coverage area overlap. In addition, a random deployment of sensor nodes cannot fully guarantee coverage of the sensing area, which leads to coverage holes in WSNs. Thus, coverage control plays an important role in WSNs. To alleviate unnecessary energy wastage and improve network performance, we consider both energy efficiency and coverage rate for WSNs. In this paper, we present a novel coverage control algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Firstly, the sensor nodes are randomly deployed in a target area and remain static after deployment. Then, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Select Applications of Carbon Nanotubes: Field-Emission Devices and Electromechanical Sensors

    Amitesh Maiti1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.3, No.5, pp. 589-600, 2002, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2002.003.589

    Abstract Atomistic modeling and simulations are becoming increasingly important in the design of new devices at the nanoscale. In particular, theoretical modeling of carbon nanotubes have provided useful insight and guidance to many experimental efforts. To this end, we report simulation results on the electronic, structural and transport properties for two different applications of carbon nanotube-based devices: (1) effect of adsorbates on field emission; and (2) effect of mechanical deformation on the electronic transport. The reported simulations are based on First Principles Density Functional Theory (DFT), classical molecular mechanics, and tight-binding transport based on the recursive Green's function formalism. More >

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