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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Biological, pathological, and multifaceted therapeutic functions of exosomes to target cancer

    VIGNESH BALAJI E1, DIVYA RAMESH2, MANISHA CHUNGAN SHAJU3, AKSHARA KUMAR4, SAMYAK PANDEY1, RAKSHA NAYAK1, V. ALKA5, SRISHTI MUNJAL6, AMIR SALIMI7, K. SREEDHARA RANGANATH PAI1,*, SHANKAR M. BAKKANNAVAR2

    Oncology Research, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 73-94, 2024, DOI:10.32604/or.2023.030401

    Abstract Exosomes, small tiny vesicle contains a large number of intracellular particles that employ to cause various diseases and prevent several pathological events as well in the human body. It is considered a “double-edged sword”, and depending on its biological source, the action of exosomes varies under physiological conditions. Also, the isolation and characterization of the exosomes should be performed accurately and the methodology also will vary depending on the exosome source. Moreover, the uptake of exosomes from the recipients’ cells is a vital and initial step for all the physiological actions. There are different mechanisms present in the exosomes’ cellular… More > Graphic Abstract

    Biological, pathological, and multifaceted therapeutic functions of exosomes to target cancer

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Protein-mediated interactions in the dynamic regulation of acute inflammation

    RYAN STARK*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.6, pp. 1191-1198, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.027838

    Abstract Protein-mediated interactions are the fundamental mechanism through which cells regulate health and disease. These interactions require physical contact between proteins and their respective targets of interest. These targets include not only other proteins but also nucleic acids and other important molecules as well. These proteins are often involved in multibody complexes that work dynamically to regulate cellular health and function. Various techniques have been adapted to study these important interactions, such as affinity-based assays, mass spectrometry, and fluorescent detection. The application of these techniques has led to a greater understanding of how protein interactions are responsible for both the instigation… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Role of necroptosis in spinal cord injury and its therapeutic implications

    JIAWEI FU1,2,3,#, CHUNSHUAI WU1,2,3,#, GUANHUA XU1,2,3, JINLONG ZHANG1, YIQIU LI1, CHUNYAN JI1,2,3, ZHIMING CUI1,2,3,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.4, pp. 739-749, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.026881

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI), a complex neurological disorder, triggers a series of devastating neuropathological events such as ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammatory events, neuronal apoptosis, and motor dysfunction. However, the classical necrosome, which consists of receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1, RIP3, and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein, is believed to control a novel type of programmed cell death called necroptosis, through tumour necrosis factor-alpha/tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 signalling or other stimuli. Several studies reported that necroptosis plays an important role in neural cell damage, release of intracellular pro-inflammatory factors, lysosomal dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Recent research indicates that necroptosis is crucial to the… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Regulation of pathological blood-brain barrier for intracranial enhanced drug delivery and anti-glioblastoma therapeutics

    KAI WANG2,#, FENGTIAN ZHANG1,3,4,#, CHANGLONG WEN5, ZHIHUA HUANG6, ZHIHAO HU1, YUWEN ZHANG1, FUQIANG HU2,*, LIJUAN WEN1,6,*

    Oncology Research, Vol.29, No.5, pp. 351-363, 2021, DOI:10.32604/or.2022.025696

    Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an essential component in regulating and maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS). During the occurrence and development of glioblastoma (GBM), BBB is pathologically destroyed with a marked increase in permeability. Due to the obstruction of the BBB, current strategies for GBM therapeutics still obtain a meager success rate and may lead to systemic toxicity. Moreover, chemotherapy could promote pathological BBB functional restoration, which results in significantly reduced intracerebral transport of therapeutic agents during multiple administrations of GBM and the eventual failure of GBM chemotherapy. The effective delivery of intracerebral drugs still… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pharmacotherapeutics and molecular docking studies of alpha-synuclein modulators as promising therapeutics for Parkinson’s disease

    RAHAT ALI1, AFTAB ALAM2, SATYENDRA K. RAJPUT3, RAZI AHMAD4,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.12, pp. 2681-2694, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.021224

    Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative ailment that affects dopamine-producing neurons in a specific area of the brain called the substantia nigra of the ventral midbrain. It is clinically characterized by movement disorder and marked with unusual synaptic protein alpha-synuclein accumulation in the brain. To date, only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs are available on the market for the treatment of PD. Nonetheless, these drugs show parasympathomimetic related adverse events and remarkably higher toxicity; hence, it is important to find more efficacious molecules to treat PD. In our study, We chosen 22 natural compounds as… More >

  • Open Access

    VIEWPOINT

    Prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic potential of endothelial progenitor cells for patients with ischaemic stroke: Hype or Hope

    ULVI BAYRAKTUTAN*

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.7, pp. 1593-1598, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.018679

    Abstract Ischaemic stroke is a debilitating disease with immense personal, societal and economic impact. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator remains the only approved pharmacotherapy for this disease. As each year less than 1% of eligible patients receive this therapy worldwide, efficacious new therapeutics are desperately needed. Emerging evidence suggest endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), capable of repairing damaged vasculature, as one such therapeutics. However, questions regarding their optimal dose, delivery route and in vivo survivability remain largely unanswered. Outgrowth endothelial cells, generated in large numbers by ex vivo expansion of EPCs, enable effective assessment of these issues and may eventually serve… More >

  • Open Access

    VIEWPOINT

    Nanotherapeutics approaches to improve the efficacy of CAR-T cells in solid tumors

    FRANCESCO MAININI*

    BIOCELL, Vol.45, No.5, pp. 1171-1173, 2021, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.017399

    Abstract Adoptive cell therapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade Inhibitors have recently revolutionized the field of oncology. However, these types of immunotherapeutic approaches have limited success in treating solid tumors. In particular, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells efficacy is hampered by immunosuppressive signals in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and by a limited infiltration of re-infused T cells to the tumor site. The field of nanobiotechnology applied to oncology is also rapidly expanding. Nanoparticles-based delivery systems can be employed to modulate the activity of immune cells present in the TME enhancing the efficacy of CAR-T cells. Interestingly, nano-backpacks can be attached to CAR-T… More >

  • Open Access

    ABSTRACT

    Molecular and Cellular Immuno-Engineering

    Yingxiao Wang1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 79-79, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07268

    Abstract Genetically-encoded biosensors based on fluorescence proteins (FPs) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have enabled the specific targeting and visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolutions. Single-molecule FRET biosensors have been successfully developed to monitor the activity of variety of signaling molecules, including tyrosine/serine/threonine kinases. We have a developed a general high-throughput screening (HTS) method based on directed evolution to develop sensitive and specific FRET biosensors. We have first applied a yeast library and screened for a mutated binding domain for phosphorylated peptide sequence. When this mutated binding domain and the peptide sequence are connected by… More >

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