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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Web Application Fingerprint Recognition Method Based on Machine Learning

    Yanmei Shi1, Wei Yu2,*, Yanxia Zhao3,*, Yungang Jia4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.140, No.1, pp. 887-906, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2024.046140

    Abstract Web application fingerprint recognition is an effective security technology designed to identify and classify web applications, thereby enhancing the detection of potential threats and attacks. Traditional fingerprint recognition methods, which rely on preannotated feature matching, face inherent limitations due to the ever-evolving nature and diverse landscape of web applications. In response to these challenges, this work proposes an innovative web application fingerprint recognition method founded on clustering techniques. The method involves extensive data collection from the Tranco List, employing adjusted feature selection built upon Wappalyzer and noise reduction through truncated SVD dimensionality reduction. The core of the methodology lies in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Unsupervised Color Segmentation with Reconstructed Spatial Weighted Gaussian Mixture Model and Random Color Histogram

    Umer Sadiq Khan1,2,*, Zhen Liu1,2,*, Fang Xu1,2, Muhib Ullah Khan3,4, Lerui Chen5, Touseef Ahmed Khan4,6, Muhammad Kashif Khattak7, Yuquan Zhang8

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 3323-3348, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.046094

    Abstract Image classification and unsupervised image segmentation can be achieved using the Gaussian mixture model. Although the Gaussian mixture model enhances the flexibility of image segmentation, it does not reflect spatial information and is sensitive to the segmentation parameter. In this study, we first present an efficient algorithm that incorporates spatial information into the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) without parameter estimation. The proposed model highlights the residual region with considerable information and constructs color saliency. Second, we incorporate the content-based color saliency as spatial information in the Gaussian mixture model. The segmentation is performed by clustering each pixel into an appropriate… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cross-Dimension Attentive Feature Fusion Network for Unsupervised Time-Series Anomaly Detection

    Rui Wang1, Yao Zhou3,*, Guangchun Luo1, Peng Chen2, Dezhong Peng3,4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.3, pp. 3011-3027, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.047065

    Abstract Time series anomaly detection is crucial in various industrial applications to identify unusual behaviors within the time series data. Due to the challenges associated with annotating anomaly events, time series reconstruction has become a prevalent approach for unsupervised anomaly detection. However, effectively learning representations and achieving accurate detection results remain challenging due to the intricate temporal patterns and dependencies in real-world time series. In this paper, we propose a cross-dimension attentive feature fusion network for time series anomaly detection, referred to as CAFFN. Specifically, a series and feature mixing block is introduced to learn representations in 1D space. Additionally, a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Normalizing Flow-Based Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network for Unsupervised Defect Detection

    Lanyao Zhang1, Shichao Kan2, Yigang Cen3, Xiaoling Chen1, Linna Zhang1,*, Yansen Huang4,5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.2, pp. 1631-1648, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.046924

    Abstract Unsupervised methods based on density representation have shown their abilities in anomaly detection, but detection performance still needs to be improved. Specifically, approaches using normalizing flows can accurately evaluate sample distributions, mapping normal features to the normal distribution and anomalous features outside it. Consequently, this paper proposes a Normalizing Flow-based Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network (NF-BMR). It utilizes pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and normalizing flows to construct discriminative source and target domain feature spaces. Additionally, to better learn feature information in both domain spaces, we propose the Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network (BMR), which maps sample features to these two spaces… More > Graphic Abstract

    A Normalizing Flow-Based Bidirectional Mapping Residual Network for Unsupervised Defect Detection

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tool Wear State Recognition with Deep Transfer Learning Based on Spindle Vibration for Milling Process

    Qixin Lan1, Binqiang Chen1,*, Bin Yao1, Wangpeng He2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.3, pp. 2825-2844, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.030378

    Abstract The wear of metal cutting tools will progressively rise as the cutting time goes on. Wearing heavily on the tool will generate significant noise and vibration, negatively impacting the accuracy of the forming and the surface integrity of the workpiece. Hence, during the cutting process, it is imperative to continually monitor the tool wear state and promptly replace any heavily worn tools to guarantee the quality of the cutting. The conventional tool wear monitoring models, which are based on machine learning, are specifically built for the intended cutting conditions. However, these models require retraining when the cutting conditions undergo any… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Unsupervised MRI Synthetic CT Image Generation Framework with Registration Network

    Liwei Deng1, Henan Sun1, Jing Wang2, Sijuan Huang3, Xin Yang3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2271-2287, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039062

    Abstract In recent years, radiotherapy based only on Magnetic Resonance (MR) images has become a hot spot for radiotherapy planning research in the current medical field. However, functional computed tomography (CT) is still needed for dose calculation in the clinic. Recent deep-learning approaches to synthesized CT images from MR images have raised much research interest, making radiotherapy based only on MR images possible. In this paper, we proposed a novel unsupervised image synthesis framework with registration networks. This paper aims to enforce the constraints between the reconstructed image and the input image by registering the reconstructed image with the input image… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning-Based Stacked Auto-Encoder with Dynamic Differential Annealed Optimization for Skin Lesion Diagnosis

    Ahmad Alassaf*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.3, pp. 2773-2789, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.035899

    Abstract Intelligent diagnosis approaches with shallow architectural models play an essential role in healthcare. Deep Learning (DL) models with unsupervised learning concepts have been proposed because high-quality feature extraction and adequate labelled details significantly influence shallow models. On the other hand, skin lesion-based segregation and disintegration procedures play an essential role in earlier skin cancer detection. However, artefacts, an unclear boundary, poor contrast, and different lesion sizes make detection difficult. To address the issues in skin lesion diagnosis, this study creates the UDLS-DDOA model, an intelligent Unsupervised Deep Learning-based Stacked Auto-encoder (UDLS) optimized by Dynamic Differential Annealed Optimization (DDOA). Pre-processing, segregation,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    RF-Net: Unsupervised Low-Light Image Enhancement Based on Retinex and Exposure Fusion

    Tian Ma, Chenhui Fu*, Jiayi Yang, Jiehui Zhang, Chuyang Shang

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 1103-1122, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.042416

    Abstract Low-light image enhancement methods have limitations in addressing issues such as color distortion, lack of vibrancy, and uneven light distribution and often require paired training data. To address these issues, we propose a two-stage unsupervised low-light image enhancement algorithm called Retinex and Exposure Fusion Network (RF-Net), which can overcome the problems of over-enhancement of the high dynamic range and under-enhancement of the low dynamic range in existing enhancement algorithms. This algorithm can better manage the challenges brought about by complex environments in real-world scenarios by training with unpaired low-light images and regular-light images. In the first stage, we design a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning Models Based on Weakly Supervised Learning and Clustering Visualization for Disease Diagnosis

    Jingyao Liu1,2, Qinghe Feng4, Jiashi Zhao2,3, Yu Miao2,3, Wei He2, Weili Shi2,3, Zhengang Jiang2,3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 2649-2665, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.038891

    Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has severely disrupted both human life and the health care system. Timely diagnosis and treatment have become increasingly important; however, the distribution and size of lesions vary widely among individuals, making it challenging to accurately diagnose the disease. This study proposed a deep-learning disease diagnosis model based on weakly supervised learning and clustering visualization (W_CVNet) that fused classification with segmentation. First, the data were preprocessed. An optimizable weakly supervised segmentation preprocessing method (O-WSSPM) was used to remove redundant data and solve the category imbalance problem. Second, a deep-learning fusion method was used for feature extraction… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic Algorithm Combined with the K-Means Algorithm: A Hybrid Technique for Unsupervised Feature Selection

    Hachemi Bennaceur, Meznah Almutairy, Norah Alhussain*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 2687-2706, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.038723

    Abstract The dimensionality of data is increasing very rapidly, which creates challenges for most of the current mining and learning algorithms, such as large memory requirements and high computational costs. The literature includes much research on feature selection for supervised learning. However, feature selection for unsupervised learning has only recently been studied. Finding the subset of features in unsupervised learning that enhances the performance is challenging since the clusters are indeterminate. This work proposes a hybrid technique for unsupervised feature selection called GAk-MEANS, which combines the genetic algorithm (GA) approach with the classical k-Means algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, a new… More >

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