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  • Open Access


    Energy Retrofitting of School Buildings in UAE

    Abdelsalam Aldawoud*, Fatma Elzahraa Hosny, Rasha Mdkhana

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.6, pp. 381-395, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011863

    Abstract The opportunities for energy savings by retrofitting of the existing school buildings in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are significant because of their excessive energy consumption and space cooling demand. In this research, energy modeling and simulation are utilized with the use of Design Builder software to examine the influence of various retrofitting measures of air-conditioning (A/C) system and building envelope components on the energy use. Several combined measures are implemented and assessed to achieve the main goal of this research of selecting the best course of action to reduce cooling energy consumption for existing school buildings in the UAE.… More >

  • Open Access


    Improved Thermal Efficiency of Salinity Gradient Solar Pond by Suppressing Surface Evaporation Using an Air Layer

    Asaad H. Sayer1, Hameed B. Mahood2,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.6, pp. 367-379, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011156

    Abstract Salinity gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) provide a tremendous way to collect and store solar radiation as thermal energy, and can help meet the critical need for sustainable ways of producing fresh water. However, surface evaporation results in the loss of both water and heat. This study therefore theoretically investigates the effect on temperatures within an SGSP when its surface is covered with a layer of air encased in a nylon bag. An earlier SGSP model was slightly modified to add the air layer and to estimate the temperature distributions of the upper layer or the upper convective zone (UCZ) and… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of Nonlinear Uncertainty Controller for Grid-Tied Solar Photovoltaic System Using Sliding Mode Control

    D. Menaga1, M. Premkumar2, R. Sowmya1,*, S. Narasimman3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.6, pp. 481-495, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.013282

    Abstract The proposed controller accompanies with different sliding surfaces. To understand maximum power point extraction as opposed to nonlinear uncertainties and unknown disturbance of a grid-connected photovoltaic system to various control inputs (ud, uq) is designed. To extract maximum power from a solar array and maintain unity power flow in a grid by controlling the voltage across the dclink capacitor (Vpvdc) and reactive current (iq). A multiple input-output with multiple uncertainty constraints have considered designing proposed sliding mode controllers to validated their robustness performance. An innovative controller verifies uncertain inputs, constant and changes in irradiances, and temperature of the photo-voltaic system.… More >

  • Open Access


    Research on Distribution Network Full Cost-Benefit Optimization Considering Different Renewable Energy Penetration

    Tanzhong Fu1,2,3, Yu Xue1,*, Tancai Xia1, Wang Jing1, De Gejirifu1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.6, pp. 397-411, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011633

    Abstract To further study the impact of renewable energy penetration on the technical transformation of distribution networks. Based on the output power characteristics of wind power and photovoltaics, a renewable energy grid-connected capacity model and a distribution network full cost-benefit model were constructed. Based on this, to maximize the comprehensive income of the distribution network and the renewable energy penetration rate, to establish the technical reform optimization model and search for the optimal solution through the improved NSGA-II algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model was verified by setting up three scenarios of simultaneous wind power, grid-connected wind power, grid-connected… More >

  • Open Access


    Wind Farm-Battery Energy Storage Assessment in Grid-Connected Microgrids

    Shafiqur Rehman1, Umar T. Salman2,*, Luai M. Alhems1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.6, pp. 343-365, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011471

    Abstract Renewable energy has received much attention in the last few decades and more investment is being attracted across the world to boost its contribution towards the existing energy mix. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), many studies have been conducted on the potential of renewable energy sources (RES), such as wind, solar, and geothermal. Many of these studies have revealed that the Kingdom is blessed with an abundance of RES with wind energy being the best after solar. This paper presents an analysis of windfarm distributed generation (WFDG) for energy management strategy in the Eastern Province of KSA. The… More >

  • Open Access


    Solar Thermal Heating and Freeze Concentration for Non-Centrifugal Sugar Production: Design and Performance Analysis

    Louis Francois Marie1,*, Sunkara Prudhvi Raj2, Policherla Venkata Sai3, Tara MacLeod1, Morapakala Srinivas2, K. Srinivas Reddy3, Tadhg Seán O’Donovan4

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.5, pp. 323-342, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011035

    Abstract Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), known as Jaggery, is a form of unre- fined sugar which contains molasses. The integration of renewable energy resources in the production of NCS, have been analysed. The work investigates the energy requirements of a system incorporating a freeze-concentrator and a solar thermal heater to reduce the reliance on the combustion of bagasse or other fuels in a Jaggery production process. Depending on the extent to which freeze concentration can be incorporated into the process, results show that the minimum theoretical energy required to produce Jaggery can be reduced by 91.30% overall. Although difficult in practice,… More >

  • Open Access


    Study on the Online Reforming of Low Concentration Alcohol as Vehicle Fuel

    Shusheng Xiong1, Defeng Xuan2, Yonggen Zhang2, Zhankuan Wu1, Wei Li1,*, Zhaohan Hu1, Jing Xu1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.5, pp. 315-322, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011975

    Abstract This research studied catalytic reforming mechanism of low concentration alcohol, analyzed the producing conditions and influencing factors of a mixture of combustible gas, took an analysis towards the composition of the mixture produced by reforming, and studied the respective effects of temperature, traffic, alcohol concentration and catalyst on the components of mixed gas. It is found that, under different working conditions of the engine, the external condition of the reforming reaction changes, and the composition of the reforming gas will differ as well. As a result, the optimum air-fuel ratio of the engine must at the same time adapt to… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of a Multichannel Dynamic Temperature Measurement System for Developing Thermal Management System of New Energy Vehicles

    Wei Li1, Shusheng Xiong2,*, Xiaojun Zhou1, Wei Shi3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.5, pp. 301-314, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011506

    Abstract A multichannel temperature measurement system based on LabVIEW and modular instruments with general purpose input/output interface is described. External simple electronic components, such as analog switches arrays, sampling resistors and voltage reference are used to expand the analog input channel of the instrument. The interface circuit for 3-wire resistance temperature device powered by the voltage reference was designed and constructed. The feasibility of filtering algorithm based on moving average filter and the data conversion method by direct computation of the polynomial are verified in LabVIEW. A comparison test with the commercial temperature measurement instrument is conducted to test the same… More >

  • Open Access


    Seasonal Characteristics Analysis and Uncertainty Measurement for Wind Speed Time Series

    Xing Deng1,2, Haijian Shao1,2,*, Xia Wang3,4

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.5, pp. 289-299, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011126

    Abstract Wind speed’s distribution nature such as uncertainty and randomness imposes a challenge in high accuracy forecasting. Based on the energy distribution about the extracted amplitude and associated frequency, the uncertainty measurement is processed through Rényi entropy analysis method with time-frequency nature. Nonparametric statistical method is used to test the randomness of wind speed, more precisely, whether or not the wind speed time series is independent and identically distribution (i.i.d) based on the output probability. Seasonal characteristics of wind speed are analyzed based on self-similarity in periodogram under scales range generated by wavelet transformation to reasonably divide the original dataset and… More >

  • Open Access


    Deep Learning Approach with Optimizatized Hidden-Layers Topology for Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    Xing Deng1,2, Haijian Shao1,2,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.5, pp. 279-287, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011619

    Abstract Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) as one of the representative deep learning methods, has restricted its generalization ability because of its indigestion hidden-layer information presentation. In order to properly handle of hidden-layer information, directly reduce the risk of over-fitting caused by too many neuron nodes, as well as realize the goal of streamlining the number of hidden layer neurons, and then improve the generalization ability of RNNs, the hidden-layer information of RNNs is precisely analyzed by using the unsupervised clustering methods, such as Kmeans, Kmeans++ and Iterative self-organizing data analysis (Isodata), to divide the similarity of raw data points, and maps… More >

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