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  • Open Access


    Dependency of Nuclear Deformation of Smooth Muscle Cells on Tissue Stretch Direction May Explain Anisotropic Response of Aortic Wall to Hypertension

    Takeo Matsumoto1,*, Chizuru Hirooka1, Yong Fan1, Junfeng Wang1, Naoki Mori1, Eijiro Maeda1

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 81-81, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07102

    Abstract Aortic wall thickens in response to hypertension. Many studies reported that the wall thickening occurs to maintain the wall stress in the circumferential direction at a constant level. In case of the longitudinal direction, however, there are few studies suggesting the constancy of the stress. Such anisotropic response may be attributable to the circumferential alignment of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the wall [1]. However, to the authors’ knowledge, there are no study discussing the underlying mechanism of the anisotropic response. It has been reported that mechanical deformation of the nuclei causes transcription upregulation… More >

  • Open Access


    Differential Organization of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells on Tubular Surface as A Novel Mechanobiology Mechanism of Airway Tissue Morphogenesis

    Linhong Deng1,*, Yang Jin2, Mingzhi Luo1

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 80-80, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07370

    Abstract Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) exists within the bronchial airway wall in a form of spirally winding bundles [1]. This pattern emerges early during embryonic development and is involved in airway branching [2], providing the airway appropriate contractile capacity and resistance to circumferential tension in health or causing excessive airway narrowing in disease such as asthma. Despite its importance, the cause of ASMCs self-organization remains largely a mystery. Previously, we have demonstrated in 2D that ASMCs can sense the curvature in their microenvironment and change behaviors in differentiation, orientation and migration accordingly [3]. Here we… More >

  • Open Access


    Molecular and Cellular Immuno-Engineering

    Yingxiao Wang1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 79-79, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07268

    Abstract Genetically-encoded biosensors based on fluorescence proteins (FPs) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have enabled the specific targeting and visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolutions. Single-molecule FRET biosensors have been successfully developed to monitor the activity of variety of signaling molecules, including tyrosine/serine/threonine kinases. We have a developed a general high-throughput screening (HTS) method based on directed evolution to develop sensitive and specific FRET biosensors. We have first applied a yeast library and screened for a mutated binding domain for phosphorylated peptide sequence. When this mutated binding domain and the… More >

  • Open Access


    Macrophages as A Mechano-Transducer to Direct the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Lili Dong1, Yang Song1,*, Li Yang1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 78-78, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07130

    Abstract It has been widely recognized that stem cells possess the potential of osteogenic differentiation, which greatly contribute to bone repair. Recently, accumulating evidences have indicated that mechanical cues are required for bone repair [1,2]. However, how local and recruited stem cells in the bone architecture receive the mechanical signals is poorly understood [3,4]. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that macrophages potentially transduce the mechanical signals for stem cell osteogenic lineage. This demonstration has been carried out through a co-culture system to investigate the effect of macrophages which subjected to cyclic stretch on the… More >

  • Open Access


    LOX Alleviates Rat Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Through ECM Improvement and Anti-Apoptotic Protection in Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    Runze Zhao1, Tingting Xia1, Mengyue Wang1, Fan Feng1, Wanqian Liu1,*, Li Yang1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 77-77, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07155

    Abstract This study was focus on the exploring the therapeutic function of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). To do this, a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat caudal spine degeneration model was established by puncturing the Co5-6 disc. NP cells apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration in IVDD were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence. Then, the therapeutic effect of LOX on IVDD was evaluated by histological staining. In vitro, the regulator effect of LOX on degenerate rat NP cell was explored. ECM… More >

  • Open Access


    Dual 3D Printing Hierarchical Nano/Micro Vascularized Bone Tissue

    Sung Yun Hann1, Haitao Cui1, Timothy Esworthy1, Xuan Zhou1, Se-jun Lee1, Lijie Grace Zhang1,2,3,4,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 76-76, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07314

    Abstract The vascularization is the most significant to achieve efficient supplement of the nutrients and oxygen for tissue and organ regeneration. However, there is a remaining challenge to fabricate a durable and functional vascularized tissue. Currently, 3D printing has emerged as a promising technique to fabricate vascular networks in many studies due to its superior controllability, reproducibility, and repeatability. In the current study, the main objective is to utilize an advanced dual 3D printing technique including stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) to create a biomimetic bone tissue with perfusable vascular networks. Specifically, the vascularized… More >

  • Open Access


    Experimental and Analytical Studies of Tumor Growth

    Hao Sun1, Timothy Eswothy1, Kerlin P. Robert1, Jiaoyan Li2, L. G. Zhang1, James D. Lee1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 75-75, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07090

    Abstract Most biological phenomena commonly involve with mechanics. In this work, we proposed an innovative model that tumor is considered as a pyroelastic medium consisting of two parts: solid and fluid. The variation of solid part depends on whether the drug has been effectively delivered to the tumor site. We derived the governing equations of the tumor, in which large deformation is incorporated. Meanwhile, the finite element equations for coupled displacement field and pressure field are formulated. We proposed two sets of porosity and growth tensor. In both cases the continuum theory and FEM are accompanied More >

  • Open Access


    Finite Element Analysis of 4D Printing

    Kerlin P. Robert1, Jiaoyan Li2, James D. Lee1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 74-74, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07125

    Abstract This presentation focuses on the new and upcoming concept of 4D printing and its vast scope and importance in the research and development in industry. The 3D printing object is considered as a layered structure. Each layer may have different orientation. Therefore each layer may behave differently under the change of its environment. We formulate the theoretical shape changing process of 4D printing resulted from (I) the biological growth or swelling, (II) the change of temperature, and (III) the effect of electric field on piezoelectric material of the 3D printing product. Then we illustrate this More >

  • Open Access


    In Vivo Biomechanical Measurements of Benign and Cancerous Skin Lesions Using Vibrational Oct

    Frederick H. Silver1,*, Ruchit G. Shah2, Dominick Benedetto3

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 73-73, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.08150

    Abstract Previous literature reports suggest that tissue stiffness is a predictor of cancer and metastatic behavior of lesions. We have used optical coherence tomography and vibrational analysis (VOCT) to characterize normal skin, scar, a verrucous carcinoma (a squamous cell carcinoma subtype), a basal cell carcinoma and benign skin lesions non-invasively and non-destructively. The results suggest that epidermal thickening and increased keratin and basal cell production occur in malignant lesions and lead to increases in surface hills and valleys as well as subsequent increases in epidermal stiffness values. Increased stiffness of the epidermis is a result of… More >

  • Open Access


    Biomechanical Measurements of Ocular Tissues In Vivo

    Dominick Benedetto1,*, Frederick H. Silver2

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 72-72, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.08149

    Abstract Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography (VOCT) is new technique capable of nondestructively measuring the biomechanical properties of ocular tissues in vivo. The technology utilizes audible sound combined with OCT imaging to obtain the resonant frequencies of both the cellular and extracellular components of tissue. The measured value of the resonant frequency is converted into a modulus using the tissue thickness, determined by OCT imaging, and a calibration curve of tissue modulus versus resonant frequency squared divided by sample thickness obtained from in vitro experiments. In this presentation we extend our analysis to ocular tissues specifically the… More >

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