Vol.89, No.2, 2020, pp.183-204, doi:10.32604/phyton.2020.08537
OPEN ACCESS
REVIEW
From Markers to Genome Based Breeding in Horticultural Crops: An Overview
  • Riaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1,*, Rashad Mukhtar Balal2
1 Department of Horticulture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan
2 Department of Horticulture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan
* Corresponding Author: Muhammad Akbar Anjum. Email: akbaranjum@bzu.edu.pk
Received 04 September 2019; Accepted 06 December 2019; Issue published 22 April 2020
Abstract
Molecular markers, genome sequencing and genome editing are considered as efficient tools to accomplish demands of plant breeders for crop improvement programs. Morphological and biochemical markers have not been extensively used as these are greatly influenced by environmental factors. Different molecular markers and sequencing techniques are routinely used in evaluation of genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship, accurate classification or taxonomy, characterization of germplasm, identification of hybrids and phylogenetic studies. Desired and undesired traits controlled by genes can be identified through different molecular markers technology all over the globe. These molecular markers are well established and have successfully been used for genetic analysis of different plants during last two decades. Recently, advanced techniques of molecular markers have been developed, which provide advance genotypic platform and tends to merge valuable properties of many basic systems. New class of markers also includes little modifications in basic methods to enhance the sensitivity and resolution. Biotechnologists, plant breeders and strong investment are strongly linked for crop improvement purposes. Current review provides detailed description of different markers, genome sequencing and genome editing that have been utilized for different genetic analyses of horticultural crops. Genome editing technologies based on CRISPR/Cas are now successfully applied in horticultural crops. Moreover, current review encourages the use of molecular marker technology for DNA fingerprinting, bar coding, sequencing, re-sequencing QTL mapping, genome association mapping and genome editing. It is need of time that diverse germplasm should be identified with different molecular techniques and further utilized in breeding purposes to achieve higher yielding and resistant cultivars against biotic and abiotic stresses.
Keywords
Genetic analysis; genome sequencing; genome editing; molecular markers; plant breeders
Cite This Article
Ahmad, R., Anjum, M. A., Balal, R. M. (2020). From Markers to Genome Based Breeding in Horticultural Crops: An Overview. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 89(2), 183–204.