Open Access iconOpen Access



Tamper Detection and Localization for Quranic Text Watermarking Scheme Based on Hybrid Technique

Ali A. R. Alkhafaji*, Nilam Nur Amir Sjarif, M. A. Shahidan, Nurulhuda Firdaus Mohd Azmi, Haslina Md Sarkan, Suriayati Chuprat

Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, University Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 54000, Malaysia

* Corresponding Author: Ali A. R. Alkhafaji. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Management of Security, Privacy and Trust of Multimedia Data in Mobile devices communication)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 68(1), 77-102.


The text of the Quran is principally dependent on the Arabic language. Therefore, improving the security and reliability of the Quran’s text when it is exchanged via internet networks has become one of the most difficult challenges that researchers face today. Consequently, the diacritical marks in the Holy Quran which represent Arabic vowels () known as the kashida (or “extended letters”) must be protected from changes. The cover text of the Quran and its watermarked text are different due to the low values of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC); thus, the location for tamper detection accuracy is low. The gap addressed in this paper to improve the security of Arabic text in the Holy Quran by using vowels with kashida. To enhance the watermarking scheme of the text of the Quran based on hybrid techniques (XOR and queuing techniques) of the purposed scheme. The methodology propose scheme consists of four phases: The first phase is pre-processing. This is followed by the second phase where an embedding process takes place to hide the data after the vowel letters wherein if the secret bit is “1”, it inserts the kashida but does not insert the kashida if the bit is “0”. The third phase is an extraction process and the last phase is to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme by using PSNR (for the imperceptibility), and NCC (for the security of the watermarking). Experiments were performed on three datasets of varying lengths under multiple random locations of insertion, reorder and deletion attacks. The experimental results were revealed the improvement of the NCC by 1.76%, PSNR by 9.6% compared to available current schemes.


Cite This Article

A. A. R. Alkhafaji, N. Nur Amir Sjarif, M. A. Shahidan, N. Firdaus Mohd Azmi, H. Md Sarkan et al., "Tamper detection and localization for quranic text watermarking scheme based on hybrid technique," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no.1, pp. 77–102, 2021.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 2316


  • 1521


  • 0


Share Link