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Cognitive Skill Enhancement System Using Neuro-Feedback for ADHD Patients

Muhammad Usman Ghani Khan1,2, Zubaira Naz1, Javeria Khan1, Tanzila Saba3, Ibrahim Abunadi3, Amjad Rehman3, Usman Tariq4,*

1 Al-khawarizmi Institute of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan
2 Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890, Pakistan
3 Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics Lab, CCIS Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 College of Computer Engineering and Science, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Usman Tariq. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Machine Learning-based Intelligent Systems: Theories, Algorithms, and Applications)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 68(2), 2363-2376.


The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) shows that there are 13.2% of children at the age of 11 to 17 who are suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), globally. The treatment methods for ADHD are either psycho-stimulant medications or cognitive therapy. These traditional methods, namely therapy, need a large number of visits to hospitals and include medication. Neurogames could be used for the effective treatment of ADHD. It could be a helpful tool in improving children and ADHD patients’ cognitive skills by using Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCI). BCI enables the user to interact with the computer through brain activity using Electroencephalography (EEG), which can be used to control different computer applications by processing acquired brain signals. This paper proposes a system based on neurofeedback that can improve cognitive skills such as attention level, mediation level, and spatial memory. The proposed system consists of a puzzle game where its complexity increases with each level. EEG signals were acquired using the Neurosky headset; then sent the signals to the designed gaming environment. This neurofeedback system was tested on 10 different subjects, and their performance was calculated using different evaluation measures. The results show that this game improves player overall performance from 74% to 98% by playing each game level.


Cite This Article

M. Usman Ghani Khan, Z. Naz, J. Khan, T. Saba, I. Abunadi et al., "Cognitive skill enhancement system using neuro-feedback for adhd patients," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no.2, pp. 2363–2376, 2021.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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