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Computational Stochastic Investigations for the Socio-Ecological Dynamics with Reef Ecosystems

Thongchai Botmart1, Zulqurnain Sabir2,3, Afaf S. Alwabli4, Salem Ben Said2, Qasem Al-Mdallal2, Maria Emilia Camargo5, Wajaree Weera1,*
1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2 Department of Mathematical Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O.Box 15551, Al Ain, UAE
3 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan
4 Department of Biological Sciences, Rabigh College of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5 Graduate Program in Administration, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria 93458, Brazil
* Corresponding Author: Wajaree Weera. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 73(3), 5589-5607.

Received 06 May 2022; Accepted 07 June 2022; Issue published 28 July 2022


The motive of this work is to present a computational design using the stochastic scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) neural networks (NNs) called as SCGNNs for the socio-ecological dynamics (SED) with reef ecosystems and conservation estimation. The mathematical descriptions of the SED model are provided that is dependent upon five categories, macroalgae M(v), breathing coral C(v), algal turf T(v), the density of parrotfish P(v) and the opinion of human opinion X(v). The stochastic SCGNNs process is applied to formulate the SED model based on the sample statistics, testing, accreditation and training. Three different variations of the SED have been provided to authenticate the stochastic SCGNNs performance through the statics for training, accreditation, and testing are 77%, 12% and 11%, respectively. The obtained numerical performances have been compared with the Runge-Kutta approach to solve the SED model. The reduction of mean square error (MSE) is used to investigate the numerical measures through the SCGNNs for solving the SED model. The precision of the SCGNNs is validated through the comparison of the results and the absolute error performances. The reliability of the SCGNNs is performed by using the correlation values, state transitions (STs), error histograms (EHs), MSE measures and regression analysis.


Socio-ecological state; conservation estimation; neural networks; reef ecosystems; scaled conjugate gradient; numerical study

Cite This Article

T. Botmart, Z. Sabir, A. S. Alwabli, S. B. Said, Q. Al-Mdallal et al., "Computational stochastic investigations for the socio-ecological dynamics with reef ecosystems," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 73, no.3, pp. 5589–5607, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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