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A 37 GHz Millimeter-Wave Antenna Array for 5G Communication Terminals

Jalal Khan1, Sadiq Ullah1,*, Usman Ali1, Ladislau Matekovits2,3,4, Farooq Ahmad Tahir5, Muhammad Inam Abbasi6

1 Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan
2 Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, 10129, Italy
3 Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria Dell’Informazione e Delle Telecomunicazioni, National Research Council of Italy, Turin, 10129, Italy
4 Department of Measurements and Optical Electronics, Politehnica University Timisoara, Timisoara, 300006, Romania
5 Research Institute for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Studies (RIMMS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
6 Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Technology (JTKEK), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology (FTKEE), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka, 76100, Malaysia

* Corresponding Author: Sadiq Ullah. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(1), 1317-1330.


This work presents, design and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of a 37 GHz antenna, for 5th Generation (5G) applications. The proposed antenna comprises of 4-elements of rectangular patch and an even distribution. The radiating element is composed of copper material supported by Rogers RT5880 substrate of thickness, 0.254 mm, dielectric constant (εr), 2.2, and loss tangent, 0.0009. The 4-elements array antenna is compact in size with a dimension of 8 mm × 20 mm in length and width. The radiating patch is excited with a 50 ohms connector i.e., K-type. The antenna resonates in the frequency band of 37 GHz, that covers the 5G applications. The antenna behavior is studied both in free space and in the proximity of the human body. Three models of the human body, i.e., belly, hand, and head (contain skin, fat, muscles, and bone) are considered for on-body simulations. At resonant frequency, the antenna gives a boresight gain of 11.6 dB. The antenna radiates efficiently with a radiated efficiency of more than 90%. Also, it is observed that the antenna detunes to the lowest in the proximity of the human body, but still a good impedance matching is achieved considering the −10 dB criteria. Moreover, SAR is also being presented. The safe limit of 2 W/kg for any 10 g of biological tissue, specified by the European International Electro Technical Commission (IEC) has been considered. The calculated values of SAR for human body models, i.e., belly, hand and head are 1.82, 1.81 and 1.09 W/kg, respectively. The SAR values are less than the international recommendations for the three models. Furthermore, the simulated and measured results of the antenna are in close agreement, which makes it, a potential candidate for the fifth-generation smart phones and other handheld devices.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Khan, J., Ullah, S., Ali, U., Matekovits, L., Tahir, F.A. et al. (2023). A 37 ghz millimeter-wave antenna array for 5G communication terminals. Computers, Materials & Continua, 75(1), 1317-1330.
Vancouver Style
Khan J, Ullah S, Ali U, Matekovits L, Tahir FA, Abbasi MI. A 37 ghz millimeter-wave antenna array for 5G communication terminals. Comput Mater Contin. 2023;75(1):1317-1330
IEEE Style
J. Khan, S. Ullah, U. Ali, L. Matekovits, F.A. Tahir, and M.I. Abbasi "A 37 GHz Millimeter-Wave Antenna Array for 5G Communication Terminals," Comput. Mater. Contin., vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1317-1330. 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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