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Coati Optimization-Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication

Hanan Abdullah Mengash1, Hamed Alqahtani2, Mohammed Maray3, Mohamed K. Nour4, Radwa Marzouk1, Mohammed Abdullah Al-Hagery5, Heba Mohsen6, Mesfer Al Duhayyim7,*

1 Department of Information Systems, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Information Systems, College of Computer Science, Center of Artificial Intelligence and Unit of Cybersecurity, King Khalid University, Abha, 62529, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Information Systems, College of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha, 62529, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computing and Information Systems, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, 24382, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Computer Science, College of Computer, Qassim University, Buraydah, 52571, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Information Technology, Future University in Egypt, New Cairo, 11835, Egypt
7 Department of Computer Science, College of Sciences and Humanities-Aflaj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 16278, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Mesfer Al Duhayyim. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(3), 4805-4820.


With the flexible deployment and high mobility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in an open environment, they have generated considerable attention in military and civil applications intending to enable ubiquitous connectivity and foster agile communications. The difficulty stems from features other than mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), namely aerial mobility in three-dimensional space and often changing topology. In the UAV network, a single node serves as a forwarding, transmitting, and receiving node at the same time. Typically, the communication path is multi-hop, and routing significantly affects the network’s performance. A lot of effort should be invested in performance analysis for selecting the optimum routing system. With this motivation, this study modelled a new Coati Optimization Algorithm-based Energy-Efficient Routing Process for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication (COAER-UAVC) technique. The presented COAER-UAVC technique establishes effective routes for communication between the UAVs. It is primarily based on the coati characteristics in nature: if attacking and hunting iguanas and escaping from predators. Besides, the presented COAER-UAVC technique concentrates on the design of fitness functions to minimize energy utilization and communication delay. A varied group of simulations was performed to depict the optimum performance of the COAER-UAVC system. The experimental results verified that the COAER-UAVC technique had assured improved performance over other approaches.


Cite This Article

H. A. Mengash, H. Alqahtani, M. Maray, M. K. Nour, R. Marzouk et al., "Coati optimization-based energy efficient routing protocol for unmanned aerial vehicle communication," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 75, no.3, pp. 4805–4820, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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