Open Access iconOpen Access



Modeling of Heat Transfer and Steam Condensation Inside a Horizontal Flattened Tube

M. Gh. Mohammed Kamil1,*, M. S. Kassim1, R. A. Mahmood2,3, L. AZ Mahdi4

1 Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, 10052, Iraq
2 School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Southern Queensland, Queensland, 4350, Australia
3 Engineering Collage, University of Zakho, Zakho, 42002, Iraq
4 Energy and Renewable Energies Technology Center, University of Technology, Baghdad, 10066, Iraq

* Corresponding Author: M. Gh. Mohammed Kamil. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Multiphase Flow and Phase Change Heat Transfer)

Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing 2022, 18(4), 985-998.


This work investigates the steam condensation phenomena in an air-cooled condenser. The considered horizontal flattened tube has a 30 mm hydraulic diameter, and its length is a function of the steam quality with a limit value between 0.95 and 0.05. The mass flow rate ranges from 4 to 40 kg/m2.s with a saturated temperature spanning an interval from 40°C to 80°C. A special approach has been implemented using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to solve a series of equations for the two-phase flow pattern and the related heat transfer coefficients. A wavy-stratified structure of the two-phase flow has been found when the mass rate was between 4 and 24 kg/m2.s. In contrast, an initially annular flow is gradually converted into a wavy stratified flow (due to the condensation process taking place inside the flattened tube) when the considered range ranges from 32 to 40 kg/m2.s.


Cite This Article

Gh., M., Kassim, M. S., Mahmood, R. A., Mahdi, L. A. (2022). Modeling of Heat Transfer and Steam Condensation Inside a Horizontal Flattened Tube. FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, 18(4), 985–998.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 1299


  • 730


  • 1


Share Link