Open Access iconOpen Access

ARTICLE

crossmark

Investigating the Effects of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel and Liquefied Petroleum Gas on the Performance and Emissions of a Dual-Fuel Engine

Hawraa S. Mohammed*, Mahmoud A. Mashkour

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Technology-Iraq, Bagdad, Iraq

* Corresponding Author: Hawraa S. Mohammed. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Recent advancements in thermal fluid flow applications)

Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing 2023, 19(9), 2329-2343. https://doi.org/10.32604/fdmp.2023.026890

Abstract

This study considers the effect of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel (ECB) blends on the performances, combustion, and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine operated in a dual-fuel mode (DFM) and equipped with an Exhaust gas recirculation technique (EGR). In particular, a single-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled diesel engine was utilized and four modes of fuel operation were considered: mode I, the engine operated with an ordinary diesel fuel; mode II, the engine operated with the addition of 2.4 L/min of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and 20% EGR; mode III, 20% ECB with 2.4 L/min LPG and 20% EGR; mode IV, 40% ECB with 2.4 L/min LPG and 20% EGR. The operation conditions were constant engine speed (1500 rpm), variation of load (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), full load, with a compression ratio of 18, and a time injection of 23° BTDC (Before top died center). With regard to engine emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (UHC), and nitrogen oxide (NOX) were measured using a gas analyzer. The smoke opacity was measured using an OPABOX smoke meter. By comparing the results related to the different modes with mode I at full load, the BTE (Brake thermal efficiency) increased by 20.17%, 11.45%, and 12.66% with modes II, III, and IV, respectively. In comparison to the results for mode II, the BTE decreased due to the combustion of ECB blends by 7.26% and 6.24% for mode III and mode IV, respectively, at full load. In comparison to mode II, the Brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) increased with the ECB substitution. With ECB blends, there is a noticeable decrease in the CO, CO2, and UHC emissions at a partial load. Furthermore, the 20% ECB has no effect on CO emissions at full load. For modes II and IV, the CO2 increased by 33.33% and 19%, respectively, while the UHC emissions were reduced by 14.49% for mode III and 26.08% for mode IV. The smoke of mode III was lower by 7.21%, but for mode IV, it was higher by 12.37%. In addition, with mode III and mode IV, the NOx emissions increased by 30.50% and 18.80%, respectively.

Keywords


Cite This Article

APA Style
Mohammed, H.S., Mashkour, M.A. (2023). Investigating the effects of eichhornia crassipes biodiesel and liquefied petroleum gas on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine. Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, 19(9), 2329-2343. https://doi.org/10.32604/fdmp.2023.026890
Vancouver Style
Mohammed HS, Mashkour MA. Investigating the effects of eichhornia crassipes biodiesel and liquefied petroleum gas on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine. Fluid Dyn Mater Proc. 2023;19(9):2329-2343 https://doi.org/10.32604/fdmp.2023.026890
IEEE Style
H.S. Mohammed and M.A. Mashkour, "Investigating the Effects of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel and Liquefied Petroleum Gas on the Performance and Emissions of a Dual-Fuel Engine," Fluid Dyn. Mater. Proc., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2329-2343. 2023. https://doi.org/10.32604/fdmp.2023.026890



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 769

    View

  • 358

    Download

  • 0

    Like

Share Link