Instructions for Authors

Journal on Big Data

ISSN: 2579-0048 (Print)

ISSN: 2579-0056 (Online)

Authors’ Guideline

Prior to submitting your manuscript, please ensure that it has been prepared according to the template and the guideline below.

Template in MS Word: Sample.doc. 

All manuscripts must be submitted via the online system. Manuscripts submitted for publication must be prepared according to the guideline given below.  

This guideline is intended to assist authors in preparing their manuscripts. To prevent avoidable delays in the review and typesetting process, Journal on Big Data (JBD) asks and encourages authors to read carefully the guidelines before writing the manuscript.

JBD publishes review and research articles among others types. All papers must be written in English, with a clear and concise style. The language editors will check the language and grammar of any submitted manuscript, and will make editorial changes when deemed necessary.

1 Cover Letter

A submitted manuscript must be accompanied by a cover letter. The cover letter must clearly state that the manuscript is an original work on its own merit, that it has not been previously published in whole or in part, and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere. It should also include statements, clearly indicating that all authors have read the final manuscript, have approved the submission to the journal, and have accepted full responsibilities pertaining to the manuscript’s delivery and contents. If there are any ethical, copyright, and/or disclosure issues that come with the manuscript, they should be revealed in the cover letter. In addition, authors need to declare that there is no conflict of interests, or disclose all the conflicts of interest regarding the submitted manuscript.

2 Template

Authors are required to use strictly the Microsoft Word template.

3 Manuscripts

3.1 Title and Author Information

  • The title of the paper should be in bold, Times New Romans, 14-point, at the top center of the page. Capitalize the first letter of each notional word of the title (title case format).

  • Insert two line breaks (two Returns) before the title.

  • Insert one line break (one Return) between title and authors.

  • Provide full names of all authors and their affiliations. The author line should be centered.

  • Authors should be numbered according to their affiliations. There should be no space between the author’s name and the number.

  • Use a comma “,” to separate each author, use “and” to separate the last two authors.

  • If there are only two authors in the author line, use “and” to separate them.

  • Authors should provide their full names in the author line.

  • Affiliations should include the authors’ Departments, Institutes, Cities and Countries.

  • Corresponding authors should be marked with the superscript *.

  • Use two line breaks (two Returns) between authors and the Abstract.

3.2 Abstract

  • Abstract of a research paper is typically 200 to 400 words in length, and 150 to 300 words for a review paper.

  • Abstract should be one continuous (not structured) paragraph and should not include reference citations.

  • Abbreviations should be defined in full the first time they appear. They could be then used, quoted in-between parentheses.

  • Insert one line break (one Return) between the Abstract and the Keywords.

3.3 Keywords

  • Three keywords are the minimum required. Use a semi-colon “; ” between each keyword.

  • Only the first letter of the first keyword is capitalized, unless it is a proper name or required.

  • One line break (one Return) is inserted between the Keywords and the Main text.

4 Structure

A paper for publication should be divided into multiple sections: a Title, Full names of all the authors including their affiliations, a concise Abstract, a list of Keywords, Main text (including figures, equations, and tables), Acknowledgments, Funding Statement, Conflict of Interests, References, and Appendix. The suggested length of a manuscript is 10 pages. Each page in excess of 15 will be charged an extra fee.

An indentation with 4 spaces (0.20”) should be inserted at the beginning of each paragraph. There should be no line breaks between paragraphs belonging to the same section.

4.1 Text Layout

  • paper size is US Letter (8.5 × 11” or 21.59 cm × 27.94 cm).

  • Margins—top, bottom, left, and right—should be set to 1.0” (2.54 cm).

  • The paper must be single column, single spaced (except for the headings as outlined below).

  • Font is Times New Roman.

  • Use 14 pt font size for the title.

  • Use 10 pt font size for author line, affiliation, abstract, keywords and references.

  • Use 11 pt font size for all main content except for special symbols and mathematical equations.

  • Use 4-character indentation on the first line of each new paragraph.

  • Use single line spacing, three pounds after segment.

  • Use 3 pt spacing after each paragraph.

  • All levels of headings should use 12 pt spacing before the paragraph, 3 pt after the paragraph.

  • Use British English or American English spellings throughout your manuscript, but not both.

  • Do not insert page numbers or line numbers.

4.2 Headings

In the Main body of the paper, three different levels of headings (sections, subsections, and sub-subsections) may be used.

  • Level one headings for sections should be in bold, flushed to the left. Level one heading should be numbered using Arabic numbers, such as 1, 2, ….

  • Level two headings for subsections should be in bold-italic, flushed to the left. Level two headings should be numbered after the level one heading. For example, the second level two heading under the third level one heading should be numbered as 3.2.

  • Level three headings should be in italic, flushed to the left. Similarly, the level three headings should be numbered after the level two headings, such as 3.2.1, 3.2.2, etc.

  • The initial letter of each notional word in all headings is capitalized.

  • The Abstract section should not be numbered. Subsequent sections should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numbers, starting from 1.

5 Equations and Mathematical Expressions

  • Equations and mathematical expressions must be inserted into the main text.

  • Two different types of styles can be used: In-Line style, and Display style.

  • Use either the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType add-on. Math equations should be editable text, and not images.

5.1 In-line style

  • In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. For example, E = mc2.

  • In-line equations/expressions should not be numbered.

  • In-line equations/expressions should use the same/similar size font as the main text.

5.2 Display style

  • Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text.

  • Equations should be flushed to the left margin of the column.

  • Equations should be editable.

  • Display style equations should be numbered consecutively, using Arabic numbers in parentheses.

  • See Eq. (1) for an example. The number should be flushed all the way to the right margin.

    E = mc2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (1)

6 Figures and Tables

Figures and tables should be inserted in the text of the manuscript.

6.1 Figures

  • Figures should have relevant legends and should not contain the same information already covered in the main text.

  • Figures (diagrams and pictures) should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers.

  • They should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced.

  • Figures must be submitted in digital format, with resolution higher than 300 dpi.

6.1.1 Figure Format

  • Figures should be centered and should have a figure caption placed underneath.

  • Captions should be centered with the following format “Figure 1. The text caption …”, where the number of the figure follows the key word Figure, and the text caption comes after.

  • The size of the figure is measured in centimeters and inches. Please adjust your figures to a size within 17 cm (6.70 in) in width and 20 cm (7.87 in) in height.

  • Figures should be in the original scale, with no stretch or distortion.

6.1.2 Figure Labels and Captions

  • Figure labels must sharp, legible and sized in proportion to the image.

  • Label size should be no smaller than 8-point and no larger than the font size of the main text.

  • Labels must be saved in a standard font (Arial, Helvetica or Symbol font) and should be consistent for all the figures.

  • All labels should be in black, should not overlap, be faded, broken or distorted.

  • A space must be inserted before the measurement units.

  • Only the first letter of each sentence must be capitalized, NOT each word,.

  • One-line Caption should be centered in the column, with the following format “Figure 1: The text caption …”, that is, the number of the figure follows the keyword Figure, and next to it, the text caption. For one example, see Fig. 1 below.

  • In referencing a Figure, please use abbreviation “Fig.” followed by the number, e.g., Fig. 1.

  • A text caption exceeding one line should use the Justify alignment.


Figure 1Some functions of x

6.2 Tables

  • Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers.

  • Tables should be placed in the text soon after where they are referenced.

  • Tables should be centered and should have a caption placed above them.

  • Captions should be centered with the format “Table 1. The text …”. For example, see Tab. 1.

  • In the text, you should reference a table as such: For example, see Tab. 1.

  • Table notes should be aligned with the left table frame.

  • For table titles, use Times New Roman, with a font size no larger than 11 pt.

Table 1: Table caption










7 Citations

  • Please cite references in the main text, by number inside brackets, e.g., [1], [2], [3], ….

  • If the cited reference contains more than 2 consecutive references, the format should be:  please see the example, [1–3], [4–6].

  • No citation to the page number should be used.

  • Do not use “Ref.” or “reference” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Reference [3] shows ...” .

  • Please do not use automatic endnotes in Word, rather, type the reference list at the end of the paper using the “References” style.

8 Acknowledgement & Declarations

Acknowledgement, Funding statement, Conflicts of Interest and References heading should be left justified, bold, not numbered, and with the first letter capitalized. Text below those headings continues as normal. Authors should thank those who contributed to the article but cannot list themselves.

8.1 Acknowledgments

  • All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in this section. 

8.2 Funding Statement

  • Authors should describe sources of funding that have supported the work, including specific grant numbers, initials of authors who received the grant, and the URLs to sponsors’ websites. If there is no funding support, please write “The author(s) received no specific funding for this study.”

8.3 Conflicts of Interest

  • Authors must declare all conflicts of interest. If there are no conflicts of interest, it should also be stated as such: “The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.”

9 References

  • All references should be in font size 10 and listed at the end of the paper.

  • Reference numbers are flushed all the way to left margin and form a column of their own.

  • The reference numbers are enclosed in square brackets.

  • In all references, the given name of the authors or editors are abbreviated with their initials only, and precede their family names.

  • Journal and book titles should be in italic, the first letter of the notional word should be capitalized.

  • The full name of the journal cited in references should be used, followed by a comma, then the volume, issue, page numbers, and the published year. Please refer to the examples below.

  • Note that the format for journals, books and other publications are different.

  • The first letter of the titles of articles, reports, dissertations and conferences should be capitalized.

  • References at the end should be arranged in the order in which they appear in the text.

  • Based on our particular style, the first five authors will be listed as they appear. When more than five authors are listed, keep the first five authors and add “et al.”.

Reference examples (References at the end should be arranged in the order in which they appear in the text):

Basic format for books:

J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, Edition. City, Country: Publisher, Chapter No., Section No., Page No., Year.


[1] S. N. Atluri and S. Shen, “Global Weak Forms, Weighted Residuals, Finite Elements, Boundary Elements, & Local Weak Forms:” in The Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) Method, 1st ed., vol. 1. Henderson, NV, USA: Tech Science Press, pp. 15–64, 2004.

Basic format for books (Online):

J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, Edition. City, Country: Publisher, Chapter No., Section No., Page No., Year. [Online]. Available:


[2] S. N. Atluri, The Meshless Method (MLPG) for Domain & BIE Discretization. Henderson, NV, USA: Tech Science Press, pp. 123–135, 2004. [Online]. Available:

Basic format for theses (M.S.) and dissertations (Ph.D.):

a) J. K. Author, “Title of thesis,” M.S. thesis, Department, University, City, State, Country, year.
b) J. K. Author, “Title of dissertation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department, University, City, State, Country, year.


[3] H. Darius, “Savant Syndrome-Theories and Empirical Findings,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Turku, Finland, 2014.
[4] N. Kawasaki, “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 1993.

Basic format for conference proceedings (published):

J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Name of Conference, City, State (if given), Country, Year, Page no.


[5] T. T. Yang, “Research on Artificial Intelligence Technology in Computer Network Technology,” in Artificial Intelligence and Security. 5th International Conference, ICAIS 2019. Proceedings: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS 11632), New York City, NY, USA, 2019, pp. 488–496.

Basic format for journals:

J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Journal title, Volume No., Issue No., Page No., Year, DOI. 10.1109.XXX.123456.


[6] A. M. Farhan, “Effect of rotation on the propagation of waves in hollow poroelastic circular cylinder with magnetic field,” Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 129-156, 2017, 10.3970/cmc.2017.053.133
[7] X. Chen and J. H. Jiang, “A method of virtual machine placement for fault-tolerant cloud applications,” Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 587–597, 2016.
[8] X. F. Li, Y. B. Zhuang and S. X. Yang, “Cloud computing for big data processing,” Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 545–546, 2017.
[9] L. Ali, R. Sidek, I. Aris and M. A. M. Ali, “Design of a testchip for low cost IC testing,” Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2009.
[10] J. Cheng, R. M. Xu, X. Y. Tang, V. S. Sheng and C. T. Cai, “An abnormal network flow feature sequence prediction approach for DDoS attacks detection in big data environment,” Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 095-119, 2018.
[11] W. J. Yang, P. P. Dong, W. S. Tang, X. P. Lou, H. J. Zhou et al., “A MPTCP scheduler for web transfer,” Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 57 no. 2, pp. 205-222, 2018.

Basic format for computer programs and electronic documents (when available online):

Legislative body. Number of Congress, Session. (year, month day). Number of bill or resolution, Title. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

NOTE: ISO recommends that capitalization follows the accepted practice for the language or script in which the information is given.


[12] U.S. House. 102nd Congress, 1st Session. (1991, Jan. 11). H. Con. Res. 1, Sense of the Congress on Approval of Military Action. [Online]. Available: LEXIS Library: GENFED File: BILLS

10 Appendix

Authors that need to include an appendix section should place it after the References section. Multiple appendices should all have headings in the style used above. They will be ordered A, B, and C etc.

11 Units and Symbols

  • There should be a space between the unit and Arabic number: 5 mm NOT 5mm.

  • There should be a space before and after the operator: 3 cm  × 5 cm NOT 3 cm × 5 cm.

  • Please use Arabic number and relevant unit in the manuscript: 5 kg NOT five kilograms or 5 kilograms or five kg.

  • Do not use hyphen/dash or any connector symbol between the value and its unit: 5 kg NOT 5–kg.

  • Please clarify all units during a calculation or a mathematical relationship: 3 cm × 5 cm NOT 3 × 5 cm, 123 g ± 2 g or (123 ± 2) g NOT 123 ± 2 g, 70%–85% NOT 70–85%.

  • Greek letters must be inserted using the correct Greek symbol (using Times, Helvetica or Symbol font), NOT written in full, i.e., alpha: α; beta: β, ß, (available in Times and Helvetica); and gamma: γ, etc.

12 English Editor Service

Clear and concise language enables both the journal editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of your manuscript. In order to facilitate a proper peer review process and ensure that submissions are judged exclusively on academic merit, Tech Science Press strongly encourages authors to prepare the language of their manuscripts with the utmost care.

If you are an author whose native language is not English—or you have any concerns regarding the language quality of your manuscript—we recommend having your manuscript professionally edited by a qualified English-speaking researcher in your field prior to submission.


Please use the provided link to receive the special 20% off when you check out with TopEdit.

13 Authorship and Contribution

The listed authors include all of the individuals who have made substantial contributions to the intellectual content of an article in terms of the conception, drafting, and revising of the work and the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Their approval is required for the submitted version as well as any substantially modified version to which they have contributed. Further, all of the listed authors are considered personally responsible for all aspects of the work and must guarantee that any questions regarding its accuracy or integrity—even for aspects of the work in which an individual author did not personally take part—are appropriately examined, resolved, and documented in the article.

On the other hand, involvement in the securing of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of a research group does not in itself justify listing someone as an author. Rather, those who have contributed to the work in such ways should be listed in the acknowledgments.

Please note that submissions by any individual other than one of the listed authors will not be considered. It is not only the edition changes that require the consent of all authors, but also the authorship changes, that is, adding and deleting authors requires the consent and signature of all authors.

14 Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest (COIs, also referred to as “competing interests”) are external pressures that have the potential to influence the validity or objectivity of research. Editors, authors, and reviewers may have COIs. TSP considers it essential to identify and seek to mitigate those issues so as to ensure the integrity of its role in the dissemination and preservation of knowledge. In order to limit COIs, authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or associations that may be perceived as having such influence, and acknowledge all funding sources for the work. However, COI statements relating to public funding sources, such as government agencies and charitable or academic institutions, need not be supplied.

To be specific, TSP defines a COI as any relationship that may have an impact on the authors, reviewers, or editors of a manuscript during the peer review process, on the making of editorial decisions, or generally on any stage in the path toward publication. Thus COIs may include (but are not limited to): 

  • Affiliation with the same institution;

  • personal relationships, e.g., between thesis advisers and their students;

  • academic relationships, e.g., among co-authors, collaborators, or competitors;

COIs are not considered permanent; however; such relationships that have ended more than two years prior to the submission of a manuscript need not be identified as sources of potential conflict.


TSP requires a declaration from all authors of a manuscript regarding any potential COIs that could be relevant to the integrity or reliability of the scientific and professional judgment presented therein, as well as that of otherwise unassociated studies in the same journal. If there is, in fact, no conflict of interest, the authors should state plainly, “The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.”


Reviewers should declare any COIs when they are assigned a manuscript and disclose this information to the editor, who will then assess whether they should proceed with the review process. 


The evaluation procedure (i.e., peer review and decisions regarding publication) must be free of biased editorial decisions. If an editor, guest editor, or associate editor believes that a personal, professional, or financial connection to an author may compromise the procedure, he or she must inform the journal’s editorial office of the fact.

TSP publishes all articles under an open-access license, which means that they remain accessible to all without charge and without technical or legal barriers and that they can be re-used with proper acknowledgment and citation. Financial support for open access publication is provided by the authors’ institutions or by research funding agencies, which pay a relatively low article processing charge (APC) once manuscripts that have been accepted. More specifically, TSP journals publish articles under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License. TSP is committed to open access publishing as a means to foster the exchange of research among scientists, especially across disciplines.

The copyright and other proprietary rights related to work published by a TSP journal are retained by the authors. If they reproduce any text, figures, tables, or illustrations from this work in their own future research, the authors must cite the original published version. They are further asked to inform the journal’s editorial office of any exceptional circumstances in this regard at the time of submission, for which exceptions may be granted at the discretion of the publisher.

Articles published in TSP journals are likely to contain material republished with permission under a more restrictive license. When this situation arises, it should be indicated; it is the responsibility of the authors to seek permission for reuse from the copyright holder.

16 Corrections and Retractions


TSP considers every article published online to be in its final form. When authors receive the proofs of their articles, they have the opportunity to check for errors. Occasionally, however, errors may be detected in a published article. A correction is a statement indicating the correction of an error or omission; for TSP, authors or readers may submit such a statement either through the journal’s online manuscript submission system or by sending an email to the journal’s editorial office (along with the submission ID). A corrected article is not removed from the journal’s contents, but a correction notice is linked to it and made freely available to all readers.

TSP publishes corrections of errors involving metadata and those of a scientific nature that do not alter the overall thrust of a published article only; the addition of new data is not permitted. During the correction process, the editor responsible for preparing the article for publication is consulted when necessary.


A retraction is a notice that a previously published paper should no longer be regarded as part of the published literature. The primary purpose of retractions is to correct major errors and to ensure the integrity of the literature rather than to punish the authors of compromised papers. Retractions are thus issued in cases in which there is clear evidence that the findings either are unreliable—whether as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication) or honest mistakes (e.g., miscalculations or experimental errors)—have previously been published elsewhere without proper citation, permission, or justification (i.e., instances of redundant publication), or are the product of plagiarism or other forms of unethical behavior.

The retraction will be assigned to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal, the Editor, and the Managing Editor who handled the paper. Retracted articles should not be removed from printed copies of the journal (e.g. in libraries) nor from electronic archives but their retracted status should be indicated as clearly as possible. Notice of retraction is linked to the retracted article and is freely available to all readers.

Articles may be retracted by their author(s) or by the Journal Editor, or the publisher. In all cases, the retraction indicates the reason for the action and who is responsible for the decision. If a retraction is made without the unanimous agreement of the authors, that is also noted.

In rare and extreme cases, the publisher may remove an article. Bibliographic information about the article will be retained to ensure the integrity of the scientific record.

17 Post-publication Discussions and Corrections

TSP allows for further discussion after either publication or rejection. Thus, authors may appeal a rejection or request an opportunity for post-publication revision by contacting the journal’s editorial office, though only in cases involving a major misunderstanding concerning either a technical aspect of the manuscript or the scientific advance demonstrated therein. When making such an appeal or request, authors must provide a detailed justification for their request or description of the situation, including point-by-point responses to the reviewers’ and/or editor’s comments. The journal’s managing editor then forwards the manuscript and related information (including the identities of the referees) to the responsible editor (either the editor-in-chief or, in the case of special issues, the guest editor), who renders a decision that is considered final and irreversible.

18 Investigations and Sanctions

If Tech Science Press becomes aware of breaches of the publication ethics policies, the following sanctions may be applied across the Tech Science Press journals:

  • Rejection of the manuscript and any other manuscripts submitted by the author(s).

  • Not allowing submission for 1–3 years.

  • Prohibition from acting as an editor or reviewer.

Suspected breaches of our publication ethics policies, either before and after publication, as well as concerns about research ethics, should be reported to the ethics group of TSP and undergo a thorough investigation. During the investigation process, the underlying data, images, consult editors, and etc. may be requested to be provided by the authors for the help in an investigation.