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N-Doped rGO-Like Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell: Structure and Specific Capacitance

Imam Khambali1,2,*, Budhi Priyanto1,2, Retno Asih1, Malik Anjelh Baqiya1, Muhammad Mahyiddin Ramli3, Nurul Huda Osman4, Sarayut Tunmee5, Hideki Nakajima5, Triwikantoro1, Mochamad Zainuri1, Darminto1,*

1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Data Analytics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Malang, 65144, Indonesia
3 Geopolymer & Green Technology Centre of Excellence, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia
4 Applied Electromagnetic Laboratory 1, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia
5 Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Nakhon Ratchasima, 3000, Thailand

* Corresponding Authors: Imam Khambali. Email: email; Darminto. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Green Materials for Supercapacitors)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2023, 11(4), 1823-1833.


An rGO−like carbon compound has been synthesized from biomass, i.e., old coconut shell, by a carbonization process followed by heating at 400°C for 5 h. The nitrogen doping was achieved by adding the urea (CH4N2O) and stirring at 70°C for 14 h. The morphology and structure of the rGO-like carbon were investigated by electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of C-N functional groups was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared and synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, while the particle and the specific capacitance were measured by particle sizer and cyclic voltammetry. The highest specific capacitance of 72.78 F/g is achieved by the sample with 20% urea, having the smallest particles size and the largest surface area. The corresponding sample has shown to be constituted by the appropriate amount of C–N pyrrolic and pyridinic defects.

Graphical Abstract

N-Doped rGO-Like Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell: Structure and Specific Capacitance


Cite This Article

Khambali, I., Priyanto, B., Asih, R., Baqiya, M. A., Ramli, M. M. et al. (2023). N-Doped rGO-Like Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell: Structure and Specific Capacitance. Journal of Renewable Materials, 11(4), 1823–1833.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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