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Transglutaminase 2 Promotes Migration and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells

Hung-Tsung Lee*, Cheng-Hsieh Huang, Wuan-Chun Chen, Chi-Shan Tsai, Yu-Lin Chao, Szu-Han Liu, Jun-Hong Chen, Yi-Ying Wu, Yi-Ju Lee†§

* Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Pingtung, Taiwan, Republic of China
† Institute of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China
‡ Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China
§ Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China

Oncology Research 2018, 26(8), 1175-1182. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504018X15149761920868

Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Given that the major threat of cancer is metastasis, delineation of the molecular mechanism underlying it would help devise therapeutic strategies. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), belonging to the transglutaminase superfamily, is a versatile protein with enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions. It mainly localizes inside the cell, but also appears extracellularly. Recent findings have demonstrated the involvement of TG2 in cancer development. Here we examine the role of TG2 in metastasis of lung cancer using a lung cancer cell line CL1-0, which exhibits low invasiveness, and its invasive subline CL1-5. Our results show that CL1-5 cells express a higher amount of TG2 than CL1-0 cells. Overexpression of TG2 in CL1-0 enhances cell migration and invasion, and lowering TG2 expression in CL1-5 cells reduces their ability to do so. The transamidase activity of TG2 is not required since cells expressing the inactive TG2 mutant or treated with a TG2 inhibitor are still able to migrate and invade. TG2-stimulated migration and invasion are, at least in part, mediated by Rac, as inhibition of Rac activity suppresses cell migration and invasion. Lastly, exogenous application of recombinant TG2 protein to CL1-0 cells substantially augments cell migration and invasion, suggesting the significance of extracellular TG2 in promoting these events. Collectively, our results show that TG2 plays a positive role in cell migration and invasion, and this might help metastasis of lung cancer cells.

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APA Style
Lee, H., Huang, C., Chen, W., Tsai, C., Chao, Y. et al. (2018). Transglutaminase 2 promotes migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Oncology Research, 26(8), 1175-1182. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504018X15149761920868
Vancouver Style
Lee H, Huang C, Chen W, Tsai C, Chao Y, Liu S, et al. Transglutaminase 2 promotes migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Oncol Res. 2018;26(8):1175-1182 https://doi.org/10.3727/096504018X15149761920868
IEEE Style
H. Lee et al., "Transglutaminase 2 Promotes Migration and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells," Oncol. Res., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1175-1182. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504018X15149761920868



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