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Multi-cohort comprehensive analysis unveiling the clinical value and therapeutic effect of GNAL in glioma

ZHEN LIU1,#, LIANGWANG YANG2,#, ZHENGXING XIE1, HUI YU3, TIANYI GU3, DAOMING SHI4, NING CAI1,*, SHENGHUA ZHUO2,*

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212000, China
2 Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, 570100, China
3 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212000, China
4 Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212000, China

* Corresponding Authors: NING CAI. Email: email; SHENGHUA ZHUO. Email: email
# These authors contributed equally to this work

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Multi-Omics Approaches for Precision Medicine)

Oncology Research 2024, 32(5), 965-981. https://doi.org/10.32604/or.2024.045769

Abstract

Clinical data indicates that glioma patients have poor treatment outcomes and clinical prognosis. The role of olfactory signaling pathway-related genes (OSPRGs) in glioma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and relationship between OSPRGs and glioma. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between OSPRGs and the overall survival of glioma based on public cohorts, and the target gene (G Protein Subunit Alpha L, GNAL) was screened. The association of GNAL expression with clinicopathological characteristics, gene mutation landscape, tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, and naris-occlusion controlled genes (NOCGs) was performed. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate GNAL level in glioma. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the drug sensitivity, immunotherapy response, and functional enrichment of GNAL. GNAL was an independent prognostic factor, and patients with low GNAL expression have a poor prognosis. Expression of GNAL was closely associated with clinicopathological characteristics, DNA methylation, and several immune-related pathways. Immune infiltration analysis indicated that GNAL levels were negatively correlated with immune scores. GNAL low-expression group showed efficacy with anti-PD-1 therapy. Ten compounds with significantly different half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between the GNAL high and low-expression groups were identified. Furthermore, its expression was associated with several immune cells, immune-related genes, and NOCGs. The expression of GNAL is closely associated with clinicopathological characteristics, TIME, and the response to therapeutic interventions, highlighting its potential as a prognostic biomarker for glioma.

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APA Style
LIU, Z., YANG, L., XIE, Z., YU, H., GU, T. et al. (2024). Multi-cohort comprehensive analysis unveiling the clinical value and therapeutic effect of <i>gnal</i> in glioma. Oncology Research, 32(5), 965-981. https://doi.org/10.32604/or.2024.045769
Vancouver Style
LIU Z, YANG L, XIE Z, YU H, GU T, SHI D, et al. Multi-cohort comprehensive analysis unveiling the clinical value and therapeutic effect of <i>gnal</i> in glioma. Oncol Res. 2024;32(5):965-981 https://doi.org/10.32604/or.2024.045769
IEEE Style
Z. LIU et al., "Multi-cohort comprehensive analysis unveiling the clinical value and therapeutic effect of <i>GNAL</i> in glioma," Oncol. Res., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 965-981. 2024. https://doi.org/10.32604/or.2024.045769



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