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Silicon and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Growth Attributes, Metabolites and Antioxidant Defense System of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Arsenic Stress

Savita Bhardwaj1, Tunisha Verma1, Ali Raza2,*, Dhriti Kapoor1,*

1 Department of Botany, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144411, India
2 College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU), Fuzhou, 350002, China

* Corresponding Authors: Ali Raza. Email: email; Dhriti Kapoor. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Physiological and Molecular Interventions in Improving Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2023, 92(3), 763-782.


Arsenic (As) contaminated food chains have emerged as a serious public concern for humans and animals and are known to affect the cultivation of edible crops throughout the world. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the individual as well as the combined effects of exogenous silicon (Si) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on plant growth, metabolites, and antioxidant defense systems of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants under three different concentrations of As stress, i.e., 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mM in a pot experiment. The results showed that As stress reduced the growth parameters of radish plants by increasing the level of oxidative stress markers, i.e., malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. However, foliar application of Si (2 mM) and pretreatment with SNP (100 µM) alone as well as in combination with Si improved the plant growth parameters, i.e., root length, fresh and dry weight of plants under As stress. Furthermore, As stress also reduced protein, and metabolites contents (flavonoids, phenolic and anthocyanin). Activities of antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), as well as the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) decreased under As stress. In most of the parameters in radish, As III concentration showed maximum reduction, as compared to As I and II concentrations. However, the individual and combined application of Si and NO significantly alleviated the As-mediated oxidative stress in radish plants by increasing the protein, and metabolites content. Enhancement in the activities of CAT, APX, POD and PPO enzymes were recorded. Contents of glutathione and ascorbic acid were also enhanced in response to co-application of Si and NO under As stress. Results obtained were more pronounced when Si and NO were applied in combination under As stress, as compared to their individual application. In short, the current study highlights that Si and NO synergistically regulate plant growth through lowering the As-mediated oxidative stress by upregulating the metabolites content, activity of antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants in radish plants.


Cite This Article

Bhardwaj, S., Verma, T., Raza, A., Kapoor, D. (2023). Silicon and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Growth Attributes, Metabolites and Antioxidant Defense System of Radish ( L.) under Arsenic Stress. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 92(3), 763–782.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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