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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Edge Computing Platform with Efficient Migration Scheme for 5G/6G Networks

    Abdelhamied A. Ateya1, Amel Ali Alhussan2,*, Hanaa A. Abdallah3, Mona A. Al duailij2, Abdukodir Khakimov4, Ammar Muthanna5

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 1775-1787, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.031841

    Abstract Next-generation cellular networks are expected to provide users with innovative gigabits and terabits per second speeds and achieve ultra-high reliability, availability, and ultra-low latency. The requirements of such networks are the main challenges that can be handled using a range of recent technologies, including multi-access edge computing (MEC), artificial intelligence (AI), millimeter-wave communications (mmWave), and software-defined networking. Many aspects and design challenges associated with the MEC-based 5G/6G networks should be solved to ensure the required quality of service (QoS). This article considers developing a complex MEC structure for fifth and sixth-generation (5G/6G) cellular networks. Furthermore, More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Band Metamaterial Antenna for Terahertz Applications

    Adel Y. I. Ashyap1, M. Inam2, M. R. Kamarudin1, M. H. Dahri3, Z. A. Shamsan4,*, K. Almuhanna4, F. Alorifi4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 1765-1782, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.030618

    Abstract A multi-band metamaterial antenna is proposed to operate at the terahertz (THz) band for medical applications. The proposed structure is designed on a polyimide as a support layer, and its radiating elements are made of graphene. Initially, the design is started with a conventional shape showing a single operating frequency at 1.1 THz. To achieve a multi-band operating frequency, the conventional shape was replaced with the proposed metamaterial as a radiating patch that has properties not exist in nature. The multi-band frequencies are obtained without compromising the overall size of the design. The overall size… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    6G-Enabled Internet of Things: Vision, Techniques, and Open Issues

    Mehdi Hosseinzadeh1, Atefeh Hemmati2, Amir Masoud Rahmani3,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.133, No.3, pp. 509-556, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.021094

    Abstract There are changes in the development of wireless technology systems every decade. 6G (sixth generation) wireless networks improve on previous generations by increasing dependability, accelerating networks, increasing available bandwidth, decreasing latency, and increasing data transmission speed to standardize communication signals. The purpose of this article is to comprehend the current directions in 6G studies and their relationship to the Internet of Things (IoT). Also, this paper discusses the impacts of 6G on IoT, critical requirements and trends for 6G-enabled IoT, new service classes of 6G and IoT technologies, and current 6G-enabled IoT studies selected by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Cooperative Cluster-Based Data Collection for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    R. Rajender1, C. S. S. Anupama2, G. Jose Moses3, E. Laxmi Lydia4, Seifedine Kadry5, Sangsoon Lim6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.2, pp. 3351-3365, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.030229

    Abstract In recent times, sixth generation (6G) communication technologies have become a hot research topic because of maximum throughput and low delay services for mobile users. It encompasses several heterogeneous resource and communication standard in ensuring incessant availability of service. At the same time, the development of 6G enables the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in offering cost and time-efficient solution to several applications like healthcare, surveillance, disaster management, etc. In UAV networks, energy efficiency and data collection are considered the major process for high quality network communication. But these procedures are found to be challenging because… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Improved Multi-party Quantum Key Agreement with Four-qubit Cluster States

    Hussein Abulkasim1,*, Eatedal Alabdulkreem2, Safwat Hamad3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.1, pp. 225-232, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025727

    Abstract Quantum key agreement is a promising key establishing protocol that can play a significant role in securing 5G/6G communication networks. Recently, Liu et al. (Quantum Information Processing 18(8):1-10, 2019) proposed a multi-party quantum key agreement protocol based on four-qubit cluster states was proposed. The aim of their protocol is to agree on a shared secret key among multiple remote participants. Liu et al. employed four-qubit cluster states to be the quantum resources and the X operation to securely share a secret key. In addition, Liu et al.'s protocol guarantees that each participant makes an equal More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Deep Learning Model for Privacy Preserving IIoT on 6G Environment

    Anwer Mustafa Hilal1,*, Jaber S. Alzahrani2, Ibrahim Abunadi3, Nadhem Nemri4, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi5,6, Abdelwahed Motwakel1, Ishfaq Yaseen1, Abu Sarwar Zamani1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 333-348, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024794

    Abstract In recent times, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) experiences a high risk of cyber attacks which needs to be resolved. Blockchain technology can be incorporated into IIoT system to help the entrepreneurs realize Industry 4.0 by overcoming such cyber attacks. Although blockchain-based IIoT network renders a significant support and meet the service requirements of next generation network, the performance arrived at, in existing studies still needs improvement. In this scenario, the current research paper develops a new Privacy-Preserving Blockchain with Deep Learning model for Industrial IoT (PPBDL-IIoT) on 6G environment. The proposed PPBDL-IIoT technique aims… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Non-Cooperative Learning Based Routing for 6G-IoT Cognitive Radio Network

    Tauqeer Safdar Malik1,*, Kaleem Razzaq Malik1, Muhammad Sanaullah2, Mohd Hilmi Hasan3, Norshakirah Aziz3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.33, No.2, pp. 809-824, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.021128

    Abstract Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) has turn up to solve the issue of spectrum congestion occurred due to the wide spread usage of wireless applications for 6G based Internet of Things (IoT) network. The Secondary Users (SUs) are allowed to access dynamically the frequency channels owned by the Primary Users (PUs). In this paper, we focus the matter of contention of routing in multi hops setup by the SUs for a known destination in the presence of PUs. The traffic model for routing is generated on the basis of Poison Process of Markov Model. Every SU… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Metaheuristic Based Data Gathering Scheme for Clustered UAVs in 6G Communication Network

    Ahmed S. Almasoud1, Siwar Ben Haj Hassine2, Nadhem NEMRI2, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2,3, Manar Ahmed Hamza4,*, Anwer Mustafa Hilal4, Abdelwahed Motwakel4, Mesfer Al Duhayyim5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 5311-5325, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024500

    Abstract The sixth-generation (6G) wireless communication networks are anticipated in integrating aerial, terrestrial, and maritime communication into a robust system to accomplish trustworthy, quick, and low latency needs. It enables to achieve maximum throughput and delay for several applications. Besides, the evolution of 6G leads to the design of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in providing inexpensive and effective solutions in various application areas such as healthcare, environment monitoring, and so on. In the UAV network, effective data collection with restricted energy capacity poses a major issue to achieving high quality network communication. It can be addressed… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Milestones of Wireless Communication Networks and Technology Prospect of Next Generation (6G)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif1, Md. Sanwar Hossain2, Abu Jahid3, Muhammad Asghar Khan4, Bong Jun Choi5,*, Samih M. Mostafa6,7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 4803-4818, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023500

    Abstract Since around 1980, a new generation of wireless technology has arisen approximately every 10 years. First-generation (1G) and second-generation (2G) began with voice and eventually introduced more and more data in third-generation (3G) and became highly popular in the fourth-generation (4G). To increase the data rate along with low latency and mass connectivity the fifth-generation (5G) networks are being installed from 2020. However, the 5G technology will not be able to fulfill the data demand at the end of this decade. Therefore, it is expected that 6G communication networks will rise, providing better services through… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Blockchain-Based Decentralized Reputation Management System for Internet of Everything in 6G-Enabled Cybertwin Architecture

    Meimin Wang, Zhili Zhou*, Chun Ding

    Journal of New Media, Vol.3, No.4, pp. 137-150, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jnm.2021.024543

    Abstract Internet of Everything (IoE) has emerged as a promising paradigm for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data among physical objects and humans over the Internet, and it can be widely applied in the fields of industry, transportation, commerce, and education. Recently, the emergence of 6G-enabled cybertwin network architecture provides the technical and theoretical foundation for the realization of IoE paradigm. However, the IoE has three open issues in the 6G-enabled cybertwin architecture, i.e., data authenticity, data storage and node reliability. To address these issues, we propose a blockchain-based decentralized reputation management system (BC-DRMS)… More >

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