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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of Bisphenol-C Epoxy Crotonate and Its Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    PARSOTAM H. PARSANIA1,*, JIGNESH V. PATEL2, JIGNESH P. PATEL3

    Journal of Polymer Materials, Vol.40, No.3-4, pp. 271-284, 2023, DOI:10.32381/JPM.2023.40.3-4.9

    Abstract Bisphenol-C epoxy crotonate resin was synthesized by reacting 8.09g epoxy resin of bisphenolC, and 2.15g crotonic acid using 25 mL 1,4-dioxane as a solvent, and 1 mL triethylamine as a catalyst at reflux temperature for 1-6 h. Solid epoxy crotonate (ECCR) is highly soluble in common organic solvents. ECCR was characterized by its acid (24.5-1.5 mg KOH/g) and hydroxyl (504.5-678.4 mg KOH/g) values. The structure of ECCR is supported by FTIR and 1 HNMR spectroscopic methods. A DSC endothermic transition at 229o C indicated melting followed by thermal polymerization of ECCR. ECCR is thermally stable… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Melamine–Dialdehyde Starch Wood Particleboard Surface Finish without Formaldehyde

    Bengang Zhang1,*, Antonio Pizzi2,*, Mathieu Petrissans1, Anelie Petrissans1, Baptiste Colin1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.11, pp. 3867-3889, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.028888

    Abstract Melamine-dialdehyde starch resins used for wood surface finishes have been developed. The reaction of melamine with dialdehyde starch has been shown to occur by FTIR and MALDI ToF spectrometry, with several oligomer species due to the reaction of the two materials being identified, and the resin thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The resins were prepared by two different procedures when it was realized that dialdehyde starch is sensitive to too high a temperature for prolonged times. The melamine-dialdehyde starch resins were applied on particleboard supports as a direct liquid surface finish and a More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Curing Process of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for Plywood under Vacuum Conditions

    Guobing Xiong1, Lu Hong2, Zehui Ju3, Xiaoning Lu3,*, Juwan Jin3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.9, pp. 3447-3461, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027430

    Abstract The study characterized the curing behaviors of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin under different vacuum degrees and explored the properties of 9-ply plywood panels hot-pressed under both vacuum and atmospheric conditions. The changes in core temperature and moisture content of the plywood mats during hot pressing were investigated as well. It was found that the gel times and gel temperatures of PF resin decreased with the increase of vacuum degree using a self-made device. FTIR spectra indicated the degree of polycondensation of hydroxymethyl gradually increased with the increase in temperature. It was also observed that a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Green Synthesis for Lignin Plasticization: Aqueous Graft Copolymerization with Methyl Methacrylate

    Sinto Jacob1, Manjusri Misra1,2, Amar Mohanty1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 154-165, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2012.634107

    Abstract This study investigated the use of potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator for the grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto softwood kraft lignin. Ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate was used as a catalyst to overcome the inherent inhibition of lignin to free radical grafting and to make lignin copolymer under mild conditions using an aqueous medium. The infl uence of temperature, initiator concentration, time of reaction and monomer concentration on percentage of grafting were studied. A maximum of 31% grafting was achieved at 55ο C. Graft copolymer was identifi ed from the Fourier transform infrared More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Valorization of Tunisian Pomegranate Peel Tannins in Green Adhesives Formulation

    Houda Saad1,2,*, Antonio Pizzi3,4, Bertrand Charrier2, Naceur Ayed1, Karsten Rode5, Fatima Charrier - El Bouhtoury2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 34-43, 2015, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634130

    Abstract The possible use of Tunisian pomegranate tannins in wood adhesive formulation was studied for the fi rst time. Colorimetric tests, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fl ight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to examine pomegranate tannins. Analysis showed that pomegranate peels are rich in hydrolyzable tannins. The Stiasny number tests showed the low reactivity of pomegranate tannin extract to formaldehyde and thus the diffi culty of using it in wood adhesive formulation. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and strength analysis of pomegranate tannin/hexamine-based resin showed weak bonding properties. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

    Benoit Ndiwe1,2,3, Antonio Pizzi4,*, Hubert Chapuis5, Noel Konai6, Lionel Karga7, Pierre Girods4, Raidandi Danwe6,8

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2015-2027, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019891

    Abstract In this work, the thermal degradation and drying of bio-hardeners are investigated. Four bio-hardeners based on exudates of Senegalia senegal, Vachellia nilotica, Vachellia seyal, and Acacia Siebteriana were analyzed by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis, and a desorption study was also conducted. The analysis by infrared spectroscopy indicates the existence of oligomers of different types all giving 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylfuran and 2, 5-dihydroxymethylfuran which are then the real hardening molecules. The pyrolysis of these extracts reveals three main regions of mass loss, a first region is located between 25°C and 110°C reflecting the loss of water from the adhesive and the formation More > Graphic Abstract

    Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Curing Kinetics of Tannin and Lignin Biobased Adhesives Determined by DSC and ABES

    Jaša Saražin1, Ida Poljanšek1, Antonio Pizzi2, Milan Šernek1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2117-2131, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019602

    Abstract The curing process of two biobased adhesives: pine tanninhexamine (TH) and organosolv lignin non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU), suitable for interior nonstructural use, were compared with commercial urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Changes in chemical structure before and after the curing process were observed with Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The process of adhesive curing was monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the automated bonding evaluation system (ABES). Both DSC and ABES measurements confirmed UF as the fastest and NIPU as the slowest curing adhesive observed. Taking into account the ABES results, the optimal pressing parameters for the TH… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Calcium chloride linked camel milk derived casein nanoparticles for the delivery of sorafenib in hepatocarcinoma cells

    AASTHA MITTAL1, NEELAM MAHALA1, KOWTHAVARAPU VENKATA KRISHNA2, UMA S. DUBEY1,*, SUNIL KUMAR DUBEY2,3,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 127-136, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.015932

    Abstract Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, is limited by its low oral bioavailability. To overcome this drawback, we have developed novel camel milk casein-derived nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. Camel milk casein is not only biocompatible on oral administration but is actually a dietary protein of pharmaceutical relevance. Casein is used because of its amphiphilic nature, self-assembling property, ability to show sustained release, and capability of encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. In this study, camel milk casein nanoparticles loaded with sorafenib were developed and characterized. Characterization of casein… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochemical and Thermal Analysis of Spirulina Biomass through FTIR, TGA, CHN

    Ruma Arora Soni1,*, K. Sudhakar1,3,4,*, R. S. Rana2

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1045-1056, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016082

    Abstract Spirulina is a sort of algae that grows in both fresh and seawater. It is considered the Earth’s most nutritionally dense food. Certain claims about Spirulina’s beneficial health properties are attributed to the relatively high protein content of the cells. Spirulina’s lipid, fatty acid profile, and biochemical composition have received little attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature and decomposition of spirulina biomass at various temperatures. In the present investigation, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis were used to study spirulina biomass biochemical characteristics. The optimal content of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Organosolv Lignin for Non-Isocyanate Based Polyurethanes (NIPU) as Wood Adhesive

    Jaša Saražin1, Antonio Pizzi2, Siham Amirou2, Detlef Schmiedl3, Milan Šernek1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 881-907, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015047

    Abstract A non-isocyanate-based polyurethane (NIPU) wood adhesive was produced from organosolv lignin, which is a bio-sourced raw material, available in large quantities and produced as a by-product of the paper industry. The formulation of this new lignin-based NIPU adhesive, which is presented, was chemically characterised by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometry analyses. The oligomers formed were determined and showed that the three species involved in the NIPU adhesive preparation were formed by the co-reaction of the three reagents used: lignin, dimethyl carbonate, and… More >

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