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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Crossroads: Pathogenic role and therapeutic targets of neutrophil extracellular traps in rheumatoid arthritis

    YANG LI1,2, JIAN LIU1,3,*, YUEDI HU1,2, CHENGZHI CONG1,2, YIMING CHEN1,2, QIAO ZHOU1,2

    BIOCELL, Vol.48, No.1, pp. 9-19, 2024, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.045862

    Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prevalent autoimmune disease whose main features include chronic synovial inflammation, bone destruction, and joint degeneration. Neutrophils are often considered to be the first responders to inflammation and are a key presence in the inflammatory milieu of RA. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a meshwork of DNA-histone complexes and proteins released by activated neutrophils, are widely involved in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases, especially RA, in addition to playing a key role in the neutrophil innate immune response. NETs have been found to be an important source of citrullinated autoantigen antibodies and inflammatory factor release, which can… More > Graphic Abstract

    Crossroads: Pathogenic role and therapeutic targets of neutrophil extracellular traps in rheumatoid arthritis

  • Open Access

    Stability and Error Analysis of Reduced-Order Methods Based on POD with Finite Element Solutions for Nonlocal Diffusion Problems

    Haolun Zhang1, Mengna Yang1, Jie Wei2, Yufeng Nie2,*

    Digital Engineering and Digital Twin, Vol.2, pp. 49-77, 2024, DOI:10.32604/dedt.2023.044180

    Abstract This paper mainly considers the formulation and theoretical analysis of the reduced-order numerical method constructed by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for nonlocal diffusion problems with a finite range of nonlocal interactions. We first set up the classical finite element discretization for nonlocal diffusion equations and briefly explain the difference between nonlocal and partial differential equations (PDEs). Nonlocal models have to handle double integrals when using finite element methods (FEMs), which causes the generation of algebraic systems to be more challenging and time-consuming, and discrete systems have less sparsity than those for PDEs. So we establish a reduced-order model (ROM) for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Center of Gravity Position and Anti-Wave Plate Angle of Amphibious Unmanned Vehicle Based on Orthogonal Experimental Method

    Deyong Shang1,2, Xi Zhang1, Fengqi Liang1, Chunde Zhai1, Hang Yang1, Yanqi Niu1,2,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.2, pp. 2027-2041, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.045750

    Abstract When the amphibious vehicle navigates in water, the angle of the anti-wave plate and the position of the center of gravity greatly influence the navigation characteristics. In the relevant research on reducing the navigation resistance of amphibious vehicles by adjusting the angle of the anti-wave plate, there is a lack of scientific selection of parameters and reasonable research of simulation results by using mathematical methods, and the influence of the center of gravity position on navigation characteristics is not considered at the same time. To study the influence of the combinations of the angle of the anti-wave plate and the… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Exosomes in viral infection: Effects for pathogenesis and treatment strategies

    FATEMEH HEIDARI1,2, REIHANEH SEYEDEBRAHIMI1,2, PIAO YANG3, MOHSEN ESLAMI FARSANI1,2, SHIMA ABABZADEH2,4, NASER KALHOR5, HAMED MANOOCHEHRI6, MOHSEN SHEYKHHASAN7,*, MARYAM AZIMZADEH8,9,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.12, pp. 2597-2608, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.043351

    Abstract Exosomes are small vesicles that carry molecules from one cell to another. They have many features that make them interesting for research, such as their stability, low immunogenicity, size of the nanoscale, toxicity, and selective delivery. Exosomes can also interact with viruses in diverse ways. Emerging research highlights the significant role of exosomes in viral infections, particularly in the context of diseases like COVID-19, HIV, HBV and HCV. Understanding the intricate interplay between exosomes and the human immune system holds great promise for the development of effective antiviral therapies. An important aspect is gaining clarity on how exosomes influence the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of combined detection of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and glutathione peroxidase 4 in primary hepatic carcinoma and preliminary exploration of pathogenesis

    JIE DUAN, AIDONG GU*, WEI CHEN, CHANGHAO CHEN, FANGNAN SONG, FAXI CHEN, FANGFANG JIANG, HUIWEN XING

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.12, pp. 2609-2615, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.042472

    Abstract Objective: This study aims to analyze the clinical significance and mechanism of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC). Methods: The expression of NRF2 and GPX4 in peripheral blood of patients with PHC was determined to analyze the diagnostic value of the two combined for PHC. The prognostic significance of NRF2 and GPX4 was evaluated by 3-year follow-up. Human liver epithelial cells THLE-2 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 were purchased, and the expression of NRF2 and GPX4 in the cells was determined. NRF2 and GPX4 aberrant expression vectors were… More > Graphic Abstract

    Evaluation of combined detection of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and glutathione peroxidase 4 in primary hepatic carcinoma and preliminary exploration of pathogenesis

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    ANALYSIS OF CHAOTIC NATURAL CONVECTION IN A TALL RECTANGULAR CAVITY WITH NON-ISOTHERMAL WALLS

    Heather Dillona , Ashley Emeryb,† , Ann Mescherb

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 1-9, 2013, DOI:10.5098/hmt.v4.2.3004

    Abstract A computational model is presented that extends prior work on unsteady natural convection in a tall rectangular cavity with aspect ratio 10 and applies Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to the results. The solution to the weakly compressible Navier-Stokes equation is computed for a range of Rayleigh numbers between 2 × 107 and 2.2 × 108 with Prandtl number 0.71. A detailed spectral analysis shows dynamic system behavior beyond the Hopf bifurcation that was not previously observed. The wider Rayleigh range reveals new dynamic system behavior for the rectangular geometry, specifically a return to a stable oscillatory behavior that was not predicted… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Molecular basis of COVID-19, ARDS and COVID-19-associated ARDS: Diagnosis pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies

    PRIYADHARSHINI THANJAVUR SRIRAMAMOORTHI1,2, GAYATHRI GOPAL1,2, SHIBI MURALIDAR1,2, SAI RAMANAN ESWARAN1,2, DANUSH NARAYAN PANNEERSELVAM1,2, BHUVANESWARAN MEIYANATHAN1,2, SRICHANDRASEKAR THUTHIKKADU INDHUPRAKASH1,2, SENTHIL VISAGA AMBI1,2,*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.11, pp. 2335-2350, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.029379

    Abstract The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide and threatening people greatly. The routes by which SARS-CoV-2 causes lung injury have grown to be a major concern in the scientific community since patients with new Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have a high likelihood of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases. The mortality rate of COVID-19 has increased over the period due to rapid spread, and it becomes crucial to understand the disease epidemiology, pathogenic mechanisms, and suitable treatment strategies. ARDS is a respiratory disorder and is one of the clinical manifestations observed in patients… More > Graphic Abstract

    Molecular basis of COVID-19, ARDS and COVID-19-associated ARDS: Diagnosis pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Role of RIPK1 in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    XUNAN ZHAO#, EMMANUEL MAGO#, DAN WENG*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.10, pp. 2151-2162, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.030570

    Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening pulmonary disease typically caused by microbial infections, trauma, inhalation of harmful gases, and other factors. It is characterized by an inflammation in the lungs and increased alveolar permeability, leading to pulmonary edema and consequently, a low oxygen supply or hypoxemia. ARDS is responsible for 1 in 10 admissions to intensive care units, and the mortality rate for patients with severe ARDS is as high as 46%. Extensive efforts have been devoted to investigating the pathological mechanisms of ARDS to develop new effective clinical strategies. Recent studies have reported that receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase… More > Graphic Abstract

    Role of RIPK1 in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Regulatory role of NFAT1 signaling in articular chondrocyte activities and osteoarthritis pathogenesis

    MINGCAI ZHANG, TANNER CAMPBELL, SPENCER FALCON, JINXI WANG*

    BIOCELL, Vol.47, No.10, pp. 2125-2132, 2023, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2023.030161

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of joint disease, is characterized clinically by joint pain, stiffness, and deformity. OA is now considered a whole joint disease; however, the breakdown of the articular cartilage remains the major hallmark of the disease. Current treatments targeting OA symptoms have a limited impact on impeding or reversing the OA progression. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying OA development is a critical barrier to progress in OA therapy. Recent studies by the current authors’ group and others have revealed that the nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFAT1), a member of the NFAT… More > Graphic Abstract

    Regulatory role of NFAT1 signaling in articular chondrocyte activities and osteoarthritis pathogenesis

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Spider Monkey Optimization Algorithm Combining Opposition-Based Learning and Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Weizhi Liao1, Xiaoyun Xia1,3, Xiaojun Jia1, Shigen Shen2,*, Helin Zhuang4,*, Xianchao Zhang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 3297-3323, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.040967

    Abstract As a new bionic algorithm, Spider Monkey Optimization (SMO) has been widely used in various complex optimization problems in recent years. However, the new space exploration power of SMO is limited and the diversity of the population in SMO is not abundant. Thus, this paper focuses on how to reconstruct SMO to improve its performance, and a novel spider monkey optimization algorithm with opposition-based learning and orthogonal experimental design (SMO3) is developed. A position updating method based on the historical optimal domain and particle swarm for Local Leader Phase (LLP) and Global Leader Phase (GLP) is presented to improve the… More >

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