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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Forensic Investigation Using Optimal Stacked Autoencoder for Critical Industrial Infrastructures

    Abdullah S. AL-Malaise AL-Ghamdi1, Mahmoud Ragab2,3,4,*, F. J. Alsolami5, Hani Choudhry3,6, Ibrahim Rizqallah Alzahrani7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2275-2289, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026226

    Abstract Industrial Control Systems (ICS) can be employed on the industrial processes in order to reduce the manual labor and handle the complicated industrial system processes as well as communicate effectively. Internet of Things (IoT) integrates numerous sets of sensors and devices via a data network enabling independent processes. The incorporation of the IoT in the industrial sector leads to the design of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), which find use in water distribution system, power plants, etc. Since the IIoT is susceptible to different kinds of attacks due to the utilization of Internet connection, an… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Industrial Datasets with ICS Testbed and Attack Detection Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Sinil Mubarak1, Mohamed Hadi Habaebi1,*, Md Rafiqul Islam1, Asaad Balla1, Mohammad Tahir2, Elfatih A. A. Elsheikh3, F. M. Suliman3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 1345-1360, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.020801

    Abstract Industrial control systems (ICS) are the backbone for the implementation of cybersecurity solutions. They are susceptible to various attacks, due to openness in connectivity, unauthorized attempts, malicious attacks, use of more commercial off the shelf (COTS) software and hardware, and implementation of Internet protocols (IP) that exposes them to the outside world. Cybersecurity solutions for Information technology (IT) secured with firewalls, intrusion detection/protection systems do nothing much for Operational technology (OT) ICS. An innovative concept of using real operational technology network traffic-based testbed, for cyber-physical system simulation and analysis, is presented. The testbed is equipped… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Anomaly Detection Method of Industrial Data Based on Stacking Integration

    Kunkun Wang1,2, Xianda Liu2,3,4,*

    Journal on Artificial Intelligence, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 9-19, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jai.2021.016706

    Abstract With the development of Internet technology, the computing power of data has increased, and the development of machine learning has become faster and faster. In the industrial production of industrial control systems, quality inspection and safety production of process products have always been our concern. Aiming at the low accuracy of anomaly detection in process data in industrial control system, this paper proposes an anomaly detection method based on stacking integration using the machine learning algorithm. Data are collected from the industrial site and processed by feature engineering. Principal component analysis (PCA) and integrated rule… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Anomaly Detection in ICS Datasets with Machine Learning Algorithms

    Sinil Mubarak1, Mohamed Hadi Habaebi1,*, Md Rafiqul Islam1, Farah Diyana Abdul Rahman, Mohammad Tahir2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.37, No.1, pp. 33-46, 2021, DOI:10.32604/csse.2021.014384

    Abstract An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) provides a front-line defense mechanism for the Industrial Control System (ICS) dedicated to keeping the process operations running continuously for 24 hours in a day and 7 days in a week. A well-known ICS is the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. It supervises the physical process from sensor data and performs remote monitoring control and diagnostic functions in critical infrastructures. The ICS cyber threats are growing at an alarming rate on industrial automation applications. Detection techniques with machine learning algorithms on public datasets, suitable for intrusion detection of More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identifying and Verifying Vulnerabilities through PLC Network Protocol and Memory Structure Analysis

    Joo-Chan Lee1, Hyun-Pyo Choi1, Jang-Hoon Kim1, Jun-Won Kim1, Da-Un Jung1, Ji-Ho Shin1, Jung-Taek Seo1, *

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.65, No.1, pp. 53-67, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.011251

    Abstract Cyberattacks on the Industrial Control System (ICS) have recently been increasing, made more intelligent by advancing technologies. As such, cybersecurity for such systems is attracting attention. As a core element of control devices, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) in an ICS carries out on-site control over the ICS. A cyberattack on the PLC will cause damages on the overall ICS, with Stuxnet and Duqu as the most representative cases. Thus, cybersecurity for PLCs is considered essential, and many researchers carry out a variety of analyses on the vulnerabilities of PLCs as part of preemptive efforts More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Review of PLC Security Issues in Industrial Control System

    Xiaojun Pan, Zhuoran Wang, Yanbin Sun*

    Journal of Cyber Security, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 69-83, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jcs.2020.010045

    Abstract Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), core of industrial control systems, is widely used in industrial control systems. The security of PLC is the key to the security of industrial control systems. Nowadays, a large number of industrial control systems are connected to the Internet which exposes the PLC equipment to the Internet, and thus raising security concerns. First of all, we introduce the basic principle of PLC in this paper. Then we analyze the PLC code security, firmware security, network security, virus vulnerability and Modbus communication protocol by reviewing the previous related work. Finally, we make More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    MSICST: Multiple-Scenario Industrial Control System Testbed for Security Research

    Wei Xu1,2, Yaodong Tao2,3, Chunfang Yang4,*, Huiqin Chen5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.2, pp. 691-705, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05678

    Abstract A security testbed is an important aspect of Industrial Control System (ICS) security research. However, existing testbeds still have many problems in that they cannot fully simulate enterprise networks and ICS attacks. This paper presents a Multiple-Scenario Industrial Control System Testbed (MSICST), a hardware-in-the-loop ICS testbed for security research. The testbed contains four typical process scenarios: thermal power plant, rail transit, smart grid, and intelligent manufacturing. We use a combination of actual physical equipment and software simulations to build the process scenario sand table and use real hardware and software to build the control systems, More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Key Process Protection of High Dimensional Process Data in Complex Production

    He Shi1,2,3,4, Wenli Shang1,2,3,4,*, Chunyu Chen1,2,3,4, Jianming Zhao1,2,3,4, Long Yin1, 2, 3, 4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.60, No.2, pp. 645-658, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.05648

    Abstract In order to solve the problem of locating and protecting key processes and detecting outliers efficiently in complex industrial processes. An anomaly detection system which is based on the two-layer model fusion frame is designed in this paper. The key process is located by using the random forest model firstly, then the process data feature selection, dimension reduction and noise reduction are processed. Finally, the validity of the model is verified by simulation experiments. It is shown that this method can effectively reduce the prediction accuracy variance and improve the generalization ability of the traditional More >

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