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  • Open Access



    Randeep Singha,*,†, Gero Lappa, Jason Velardob, Phan Thanh Longa, Masataka Mochizukic, Aliakbar Akbarzadehd, Abhijit Dated, Karsten Mausolfe, Kristin Bussee

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 1-8, 2021, DOI:10.5098/hmt.16.2

    Abstract In this paper, different options, based on heat pipes, for thermal management of electric vehicle (EV) battery system, at cell, module and pack level, for 40 to 400 W output heat, has been explored, analysed and compared. Cooling architecture based on embedded heat pipe (EHP) with single phase pumped cold plate (CP), as most adaptable design for low to medium range EVs, while EHP with loop heat pipe (LHP) as high performance design for high-end carlines, has been classified as potential cooling systems. Experimentally, it was shown that EHPs will provide best performance for heat acquisition at cell/module level, while… More >

  • Open Access



    Matt Ghijia,*, Ian Burchb, Brigitta Suendermannb, Grant Gambleb, Vasily Novozhilov a, Paul Josepha, Khalid Moinuddina

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.17, No.1, pp. 1-8, 2021, DOI:10.5098/hmt.17.13

    Abstract Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) have superior energy density and lifetime compared to battery technologies such as lead acid. Despite the widespread application of LiBs in energy storage systems, electronic devices, aerospace and the automotive industry, they present a fire risk. In this study, experiments were conducted to characterize the thermal behavior of the electrolyte (as the main contributor to LiB fires) using a cone calorimeter; investigate the interactions of water mist and a Bunsen burner, as a precursor to examining the effectiveness of a water mist suppression system in extinguishing a LiB fire. In the present work, we have endeavored to… More >

  • Open Access



    Xiaoyong Gua,*, Gang Wub, Biwen Chenc

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.20, No.1, pp. 1-9, 2023, DOI:10.5098/hmt.20.24

    Abstract To maintain the maximum temperature and temperature difference of batteries in electric vehicles within a reasonable range, a battery thermal management system combining closed air-cooling with phase change material(PCM) is proposed and investigated. A three-dimensional numerical model is developed and validated by experiment. The results indicate that the temperature rise of batteries decreases with the increase of ambient temperature. The increasing filling amount of PCM reduces the maximum temperature difference of batteries as well as the effect of the airflow rate on maximum temperature of batteries. The energy consumption is minimum when the filling amount of PCM is 0.28kg. More >

  • Open Access


    Neural Network-Based State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-ion Batteries Based on Temperature

    Donghun Wang, Jonghyun Lee, Minchan Kim, Insoo Lee*

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.36, No.2, pp. 2025-2040, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.034749

    Abstract Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, mobile phones, and laptops. These batteries demonstrate several advantages, such as environmental friendliness, high energy density, and long life. However, battery overcharging and overdischarging may occur if the batteries are not monitored continuously. Overcharging causes fire and explosion casualties, and overdischarging causes a reduction in the battery capacity and life. In addition, the internal resistance of such batteries varies depending on their external temperature, electrolyte, cathode material, and other factors; the capacity of the batteries decreases with temperature. In this study, we develop a method for estimating the state of charge (SOC)… More >

  • Open Access


    State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Vehicles Using Deep Neural Network

    M. Premkumar1, R. Sowmya2, S. Sridhar3, C. Kumar4, Mohamed Abbas5,6, Malak S. Alqahtani7, Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar8,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 6289-6306, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.030490

    Abstract It is critical to have precise data about Lithium-ion batteries, such as the State-of-Charge (SoC), to maintain a safe and consistent functioning of battery packs in energy storage systems of electric vehicles. Numerous strategies for estimating battery SoC, such as by including the coulomb counting and Kalman filter, have been established. As a result of the differences in parameter values between each cell, when these methods are applied to high-capacity battery packs, it has difficulties sustaining the prediction accuracy of overall cells. As a result of aging, the variation in the parameters of each cell is higher as more time… More >

  • Open Access


    State of Health Estimation of LiFePO4 Batteries for Battery Management Systems

    Areeb Khalid1,*, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif1, Noor Ul Ain1, Ali Nasir2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.2, pp. 3149-3164, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.029322

    Abstract When considering the mechanism of the batteries, the capacity reduction at storage (when not in use) and cycling (during use) and increase of internal resistance is because of degradation in the chemical composition inside the batteries. To optimize battery usage, a battery management system (BMS) is used to estimate possible aging effects while different load profiles are requested from the grid. This is specifically seen in a case when the vehicle is connected to the net (online through BMS). During this process, the BMS chooses the optimized load profiles based on the least aging effects on the battery pack. The… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling and Experimental Verification of Electric Vehicles Off-Grid Photovoltaic Powered Charging Station

    Essam Hendawi1,*, Sattam Al Otaibi1, Sherif Zaid2,3,4, Ayman Hoballah1, Salah K. ElSayed1, Nagy I. Elkalashy1, Yasser Ahmed1

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.43, No.3, pp. 1009-1025, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.022927

    Abstract With the increasing development of EVs, the energy demand from the conventional utility grid increases in proportion. On the other hand, photovoltaic (PV) energy sources can overcome several problems when charging EVs from the utility grid especially in remote areas. This paper presents an effective photovoltaic stand-alone charging station for EV applications. The proposed charging station incorporates PV array, a lithium-ion battery representing the EV battery, and a lead-acid battery representing the energy storage system (ESS). A bidirectional DC-DC converter is employed for charging/discharging the ESS and a unidirectional DC-DC converter is utilized for charging the EV battery. The proposed… More >

  • Open Access


    Lifetime Prediction of LiFePO4 Batteries Using Multilayer Classical-Quantum Hybrid Classifier

    Muhammad Haris1,*, Muhammad Noman Hasan1 , Abdul Basit2, Shiyin Qin1

    Journal of Quantum Computing, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 89-95, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jqc.2021.016390

    Abstract This article presents a multilayer hybrid classical-quantum classifier for predicting the lifetime of LiFePO4 batteries using early degradation data. The multilayer approach uses multiple variational quantum circuits in cascade, which allows more parameters to be used as weights in a single run hence increasing accuracy and provides faster cost function convergence for the optimizer. The proposed classifier predicts with an accuracy of 92.8% using data of the first four cycles. The effectiveness of the hybrid classifier is also presented by validating the performance using untrained data with an accuracy of 84%. We also demonstrate that the proposed classifier outperforms traditional… More >

  • Open Access


    The Bacteria Absorption-based Yolk-Shell Ni3P-Carbon @ Reduced Graphene Oxides for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Yuhua Yang1,2, Ke Xu1, Bo Zhao1, Nana Liu1, Jun Zhou3,4,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 855-865, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014525

    Abstract Traditional carbon layer enwrapping active materials cannot easily realize perfect cladding. Therefore, it still cannot prevent the pulverization of active materials during the course of charging/discharging. In this paper, we utilize natural bacteria to absorb nickel acetate, the active materials Ni3P nanoparticles are well enwrapped, as a natural organisms surviving for billions of years, their cell walls have a perfect carbon structure, and the cell walls become carbon layer through high annealing temperature. Based on this, the yolk-shell Ni3P–carbon @ reduced graphene oxides paper is prepared, through a proper annealing temperature, the Ni3P particles disperse in the inner surface or… More >

  • Open Access


    Lithium-Ion Battery Screening by K-Means with DBSCAN for Denoising

    Yudong Wang1, 2, Jie Tan1, *, Zhenjie Liu1, Allah Ditta3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.65, No.3, pp. 2111-2122, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.011098

    Abstract Batteries are often packed together to meet voltage and capability needs. However, due to variations in raw materials, different ages of equipment, and manual operation, there is inconsistency between batteries, which leads to reduced available capacity, variability of resistance, and premature failure. Therefore, it is crucial to pack similar batteries together. The conventional approach to screening batteries is based on their capacity, voltage and internal resistance, which disregards how batteries perform during manufacturing. In the battery discharge process, real time discharge voltage curves (DVCs) are collected as a set of unlabeled time series, which reflect how the battery voltage changes.… More >

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