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  • Open Access


    A Mathematical Approach for Generating a Highly Non-Linear Substitution Box Using Quadratic Fractional Transformation

    Abid Mahboob1, Muhammad Asif2, Rana Muhammad Zulqarnain3,*, Imran Saddique4, Hijaz Ahmad5, Sameh Askar6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2565-2578, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.040371

    Abstract Nowadays, one of the most important difficulties is the protection and privacy of confidential data. To address these problems, numerous organizations rely on the use of cryptographic techniques to secure data from illegal activities and assaults. Modern cryptographic ciphers use the non-linear component of block cipher to ensure the robust encryption process and lawful decoding of plain data during the decryption phase. For the designing of a secure substitution box (S-box), non-linearity (NL) which is an algebraic property of the S-box has great importance. Consequently, the main focus of cryptographers is to achieve the S-box with a high value of… More >

  • Open Access


    A New S-Box Design System for Data Encryption Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Yazeed Yasin Ghadi1, Mohammed S. Alshehri2, Sultan Almakdi2, Oumaima Saidani3,*, Nazik Alturki3, Fawad Masood4, Muhammad Shahbaz Khan5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 781-797, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.042777

    Abstract Securing digital image data is a key concern in today’s information-driven society. Effective encryption techniques are required to protect sensitive image data, with the Substitution-box (S-box) often playing a pivotal role in many symmetric encryption systems. This study introduces an innovative approach to creating S-boxes for encryption algorithms. The proposed S-boxes are tested for validity and non-linearity by incorporating them into an image encryption scheme. The nonlinearity measure of the proposed S-boxes is 112. These qualities significantly enhance its resistance to common cryptographic attacks, ensuring high image data security. Furthermore, to assess the robustness of the S-boxes, an encryption system… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel S-Box Generation Methodology Based on the Optimized GAN Model

    Runlian Zhang1,*, Rui Shu1, Yongzhuang Wei1, Hailong Zhang2, Xiaonian Wu1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.2, pp. 1911-1927, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041187

    Abstract S-boxes can be the core component of block ciphers, and how to efficiently generate S-boxes with strong cryptographic properties appears to be an important task in the design of block ciphers. In this work, an optimized model based on the generative adversarial network (GAN) is proposed to generate 8-bit S-boxes. The central idea of this optimized model is to use loss function constraints for GAN. More specially, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) S-box is used to construct the sample dataset via the affine equivalence property. Then, three models are respectively built and cross-trained to generate 8-bit S-boxes based on three… More >

  • Open Access


    An Innovative Technique for Constructing Highly Non-Linear Components of Block Cipher for Data Security against Cyber Attacks

    Abid Mahboob1, Muhammad Asif2, Rana Muhammad Zulqarnain3,*, Imran Siddique4, Hijaz Ahmad5, Sameh Askar6, Giovanni Pau7

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 2547-2562, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.040855

    Abstract The rapid advancement of data in web-based communication has created one of the biggest issues concerning the security of data carried over the internet from unauthorized access. To improve data security, modern cryptosystems use substitution-boxes. Nowadays, data privacy has become a key concern for consumers who transfer sensitive data from one place to another. To address these problems, many companies rely on cryptographic techniques to secure data from illegal activities and assaults. Among these cryptographic approaches, AES is a well-known algorithm that transforms plain text into cipher text by employing substitution box (S-box). The S-box disguises the relationship between cipher… More >

  • Open Access


    Securing Healthcare Data in IoMT Network Using Enhanced Chaos Based Substitution and Diffusion

    Musheer Ahmad1, Reem Ibrahim Alkanhel2,*, Naglaa F. Soliman2, Abeer D. Algarni2, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie3, Walid El-Shafai3,4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 2361-2380, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.038439

    Abstract Patient privacy and data protection have been crucial concerns in E-healthcare systems for many years. In modern-day applications, patient data usually holds clinical imagery, records, and other medical details. Lately, the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), equipped with cloud computing, has come out to be a beneficial paradigm in the healthcare field. However, the openness of networks and systems leads to security threats and illegal access. Therefore, reliable, fast, and robust security methods need to be developed to ensure the safe exchange of healthcare data generated from various image sensing and other IoMT-driven devices in the IoMT network. This paper… More >

  • Open Access


    Designing Pair of Nonlinear Components of a Block Cipher over Gaussian Integers

    Muhammad Sajjad1,*, Tariq Shah1, Robinson Julian Serna2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5287-5305, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.035347

    Abstract In block ciphers, the nonlinear components, also known as substitution boxes (S-boxes), are used with the purpose of inducing confusion in cryptosystems. For the last decade, most of the work on designing S-boxes over the points of elliptic curves has been published. The main purpose of these studies is to hide data and improve the security levels of crypto algorithms. In this work, we design pair of nonlinear components of a block cipher over the residue class of Gaussian integers (GI). The fascinating features of this structure provide S-boxes pair at a time by fixing three parameters. But the prime… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Approach for Security Enhancement of Data Encryption Standard

    Dawood Shah1,*, Tariq Shah1, Sajjad Shaukat Jamal2, Mohammad Mazyad Hazzazi2, Amer Aljaedi3, Adel R. Alharbi3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5073-5086, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.020513

    Abstract Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric key cryptosystem that is applied in different cryptosystems of recent times. However, researchers found defects in the main assembling of the DES and declared it insecure against linear and differential cryptanalysis. In this paper, we have studied the faults and made improvements in their internal structure and get the new algorithm for Improved DES. The improvement is being made in the substitution step, which is the only nonlinear component of the algorithm. This alteration provided us with great outcomes and increase the strength of DES. Accordingly, a novel good quality S-box construction scheme… More >

  • Open Access


    Dynamic S-Box Generation Using Novel Chaotic Map with Nonlinearity Tweaking

    Amjad Hussain Zahid1, Muhammad Junaid Arshad2, Musheer Ahmad3,*, Naglaa F. Soliman4, Walid El-Shafai5,6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 3011-3026, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.037516

    Abstract A substitution box (S-Box) is a crucial component of contemporary cryptosystems that provide data protection in block ciphers. At the moment, chaotic maps are being created and extensively used to generate these S-Boxes as a chaotic map assists in providing disorder and resistance to combat cryptanalytical attempts. In this paper, the construction of a dynamic S-Box using a cipher key is proposed using a novel chaotic map and an innovative tweaking approach. The projected chaotic map and the proposed tweak approach are presented for the first time and the use of parameters in their working makes both of these dynamic… More >

  • Open Access


    Classification of Nonlinear Confusion Component Using Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Making

    Nabilah Abughazalah1, Iqra Ishaque2, Majid Khan2,*, Ammar S. Alanazi3, Iqtadar Hussain4,5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.36, No.2, pp. 1451-1463, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.031855

    Abstract In today’s digital world, the most inevitable challenge is the protection of digital information. Due to the weak confidentiality preserving techniques, the existing world is facing several digital information breaches. To make our digital data indecipherable to the unauthorized person, a technique for finding a cryptographically strong Substitution box (S-box) have presented. An S-box with sound cryptographic assets such as nonlinearity (NL), strict avalanche criterion (SAC), bit independence criteria (BIC), bit independence criteria of nonlinearity (BIC-NL), Bit independence criteria of Strict avalanche criteria (BIC-SAC), and Input/output XOR is considered as the robust S-box. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL)… More >

  • Open Access


    Smart Grid Security by Embedding S-Box Advanced Encryption Standard

    Niraj Kumar1,*, Vishnu Mohan Mishra2, Adesh Kumar3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.34, No.1, pp. 623-638, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.024804

    Abstract Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems continuously monitor the real-time processes in the smart grid. The system software, which is based on a human-machine interface (HMI), makes intelligent decisions to assist the system operator and perform normal grid management activities. The management of SCADA networks and monitoring without proper security is a major concern, as many grids and plant networks still lack necessary monitoring and detection systems, making them vulnerable to attack. SCADA networks exploit physical weaknesses as well as cyber-attacks. Researchers have developed a monitoring system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a microcontroller that allows… More >

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