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  • Open Access



    Shalini Jain*, Amit Parmar

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.9, pp. 1-8, 2017, DOI:10.5098/hmt.9.40

    Abstract Present paper aims to investigate entropy generation of unsteady radiative Casson fluid flow through porous medium over a permeable stretching surface with inclined magnetic field. Time-dependent partial differential equations are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These transformed equations are solved numerically by Runge–Kutta fourth-order with shooting technique. The effects of pertinent parameter such as magnetic field parameter, Casson fluid parameter, inclined angle of magnetic field parameter, Radiation parameter and Reynolds number on the velocity, temperature and entropy profiles are presented graphically. Local Nusselt and local Sherwood number are also obtained and presented in tabulated form. More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of Thermoplastic Starch from Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) by Extrusion Method

    Muhammad Ghozali1,2, Yenny Meliana2, Widya Fatriasari3, Petar Antov4, Mochamad Chalid1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1963-1976, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026060

    Abstract Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch is considered an important renewable, biodegradable, and eco-friendly polymer, which is derived from agricultural by-products and residues, with great potential for the development of biocomposite materials. This research was aimed at investigating the development of TPS biocomposites from A. pinnata palm starch using an extrusion process. Palm starch, glycerol, and stearic acid were extruded in a twin-screw extruder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of TPS showed that the starch granules were damaged and gelatinized in the extrusion process. The density of TPS was 1.3695 g/mL, lower than that of palm starch, and the addition of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Characterization of Thermoplastic Starch from Sugar Palm (<i>Arenga pinnata</i>) by Extrusion Method

  • Open Access


    Preparation of Film Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol Modified by Alkaline Starch and Lignin Fiber

    Yunxia Zhou1, Hisham Essawy2, Ai Liu1, Chenyu Yang1, Defa Hou1, Xiaojian Zhou1,*, Guanben Du1, Jun Zhang1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 837-852, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022792

    Abstract This study presents an easily prepared film based on alkaline starch-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid and lignin fiber as an additive (SPL film). The SPL film was prepared under acidic conditions through a polycondensation reaction of PVA and a mixture incorporating alkaline starch and lignin fiber from agriculture or forest source. The examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the surface of SPL film was smooth and the lignin fiber had good compatibility within the film hybrid. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations indicated that alkaline starch and lignin fiber reacted with PVA under acidic conditions… More > Graphic Abstract

    Preparation of Film Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol Modified by Alkaline Starch and Lignin Fiber

  • Open Access


    Effect of Glycerol and Reactive Compatibilizers on Poly(butylene succinate)/Starch Blends

    Supakij Suttiruengwong1,*, Kanchana Sotho1, Manus Seadan2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 85-92, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634135

    Abstract A one-step process in an internal mixer was used to prepare Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/high-loading modifi ed tapioca starch (30–40 wt%) blends with low glycerol content (10–20 wt% of starch) as a plasticizer. To promote a good compatibility, two reactive agents, maleic anhydride (MA)/peroxide and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), were selected and compared. The mechanical properties, morphology, and Molau test of the blends were investigated. The compatibility of PBS/starch blends was improved by both reactive agents at the suitable plasticizer loading (glycerol 10 wt% of starch). It was demonstrated that increasing mechanical properties resulted in good adhesion of PBS/starch interface and… More >

  • Open Access


    Degradation Behaviour of Natural Fibre Reinforced Starch-Based Composites under Different Environmental Conditions

    Rosana Moriana1,2,*, Emma Strömberg1, Amparo Ribes2, Sigbritt Karlsson1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 145-156, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634103

    Abstract The purpose of this work was to study the effect of hydrothermal, biological and photo degradation on natural fi bres reinforced biodegradable starch-based (Mater-BiKE) composites to characterize the structural changes occurring under exposure to different environments. The composites water-uptake rate was hindered by the interfacial interactions between matrix and fi bres. Thermal, structural and morphological analysis provided useful information about the irreversible changes in the properties of the composites caused by degradation in soil and photodegradation, and their synergetic effects. The effects due to the photo-oxidation and degradation in soil on the composites depended on the different chemical composition of… More >

  • Open Access


    Material Properties and Molecular Aspects of Highly Acetylated Starch-Based Films

    Kristine Koch1,*, Daniel Johansson2, Kalle Johansson3, Karin Svegmark4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 134-144, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634110

    Abstract Properties of starch triacetate fi lms from different botanical origins were evaluated. Tensile and barrier properties, glass transition temperatures and moisture uptake were measured, and the molecular structure was characterised. High-amylose starches were good fi lm formers, normal potato starch formed continuous but brittle fi lms and potato amylopectin formed very brittle fi lms even after plasticisation. Barley amylopectin did not form continuous fi lms. Different plasticisers were studied and diacetin was shown to perform better than the standard plasticiser triacetin. All fi lms were water resistant, and the best fi lms gave water vapour barriers in the range of… More >

  • Open Access


    Thermoplastic Starch: Current Development and Future Trends

    Fengwei Xie1,*, Paul Luckman1, John Milne1, Lachlan McDonald1, Conor Young1, Chen Yang Tu1, Teo Di Pasquale1, Reinhard Faveere1, Peter J. Halley1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 95-106, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634104

    Abstract Starch is a biopolymer that is widely available from agriculture/nature and thus is renewable and cheap. In addition, starch-based materials are biodegradable, offering a great advantage over traditional nonbiodegradable synthetic polymers. However, the poor processibility and product performance of starch have greatly impeded the wide application of starch in real applications. This paper reviews the current developments of the production of thermoplastic starch as a commodity renewable material. The biological origins of the feedstock, formulation development, processing requirements, as well as the important aspects that need to be addressed when designing a product from starch are discussed. It is hoped… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling and Optimization of the Shear Strength of Cassava Starch-Based Adhesives Using Artificial Intelligence Methods

    Weixing Zhang, Chunxia He*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.12, pp. 3263-3283, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020516

    Abstract With the exponential growth of the computing power, machine learning techniques have been successfully used in various applications. This paper intended to predict and optimize the shear strength of single lap cassava starchbased adhesive joints for comparison with the application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods. The shear strength was firstly determined by the experiment with three independent experimental variables (starch content, NaOH concentration and reaction temperature). The analysis of range (ANORA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied to investigate the optimal combination and the significance of each factor for the shear strength based on the orthogonal experiment. The performance… More >

  • Open Access


    Study on the Properties of Esterified Corn Starch/Polylactide Biodegradable Blends

    Yongjie Zheng1,2,3,*, Mingjian Xu1, Jingzhi Tian1, Meihong Yu1, Bin Tan4, Hong Zhao2,3,*, Yin Tang2,3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2949-2959, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019702

    Abstract Fully bio-based and biodegradable starch/polylactic acid blends have received increasing attentions for their biodegradability and potential to offset the use of unsustainable fossil resources, specifically, their application in packaging. Herein, corn starch was first esterified with maleic anhydride and then compounded with polylactide (PLA) to prepare esterified corn starch/polylactic acid blends with starch content up to 35 wt%. The structures, morphologies, thermal and mechanical properties of starch or blends were investigated. The results showed that corn starch was successfully grafted with maleic anhydride, which showed increased crystallinity and particle size than native starch. Esterified corn starch/polylactic acid blends showed good… More >

  • Open Access


    The Fabrication of Water-Soluble Chitosan Capsule Shell Modified by Alginate and Gembili Starch (Dioscorea esculenta L)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah*, Suprapto Suprapto, Harmami, Ita Ulfin, Puput Asmaul Fauziyah

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2365-2376, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020001

    Abstract Capsule shells have been successfully fabricated from water-soluble chitosan (WSC) with the addition of alginate and Gembili starch. WSC was synthesized from crab shell chitosan by depolymerization reaction. The capsule shells were made with the composition of WSC: Alginate, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 (w/w) with and without the addition of Gembili starch. Gembili starch was added with a ratio of Alginate: Starch, 1:1 (w/w). The capsule shell properties were evaluated according to Indonesian Pharmacopoeia standard. The solubility test showed that the capsule shells were comply with the standard. The highest degrees of swelling in water and HCl 0.1 N solution… More > Graphic Abstract

    The Fabrication of Water-Soluble Chitosan Capsule Shell Modified by Alginate and Gembili Starch (<i>Dioscorea esculenta</i> L)

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