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  • Open Access


    An Optimized Algorithm for CR-MIMO Wireless Networks

    Imran Khan1, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2, Marwa Obayya3, Anwer Mustafa Hilal4, Manar Ahmed Hamza4, Mohammed Rizwanullah4, Fahad Ahmed Al-Zahrani5, Hirofumi Amano6, Samih M. Mostafa7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 697-715, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021847

    Abstract With the rapid development of wireless communication technology, the spectrum resources are increasingly strained which needs optimal solutions. Cognitive radio (CR) is one of the key technologies to solve this problem. Spectrum sensing not only includes the precise detection of the communication signal of the primary user (PU), but also the precise identification of its modulation type, which can then determine the a priori information such as the PU’ service category, so as to use this information to make the cognitive user (CU) aware to discover and use the idle spectrum more effectively, and improve the spectrum utilization. Spectrum sensing… More >

  • Open Access


    Ultra-wideband Frequency Selective Surface for Communication Applications

    Shahid Habib1, Ghaffer Iqbal Kiani2, Muhammad Fasih Uddin Butt1,3,*, Syed Muzahir Abbas4,5, Abdulah Jeza Aljohani2, Soon Xin Ng3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 6177-6187, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021644

    Abstract A low-profile ultra-wideband (UWB) band-stop frequency selective surface (FSS) is designed for S-, C-, X- and Ku-bands communication applications. The FSS is constructed by using square and circular loop elements printed on the top and bottom sides of the RO3210 substrate. The FSS has been designed to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI) as well as to mitigate the harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation on the human body caused by different radio devices. The dimension and size of the UWB FSS have been reduced to 0.12 λ × 0.12 λ and 90%, respectively, as compared to the reported literature. The other… More >

  • Open Access


    Saving the Bandwidth of IPv6 Networks Using the Fields of the Packet Header

    Mosleh M. Abualhaj*, Abdelrahman H. Hussein, Qasem M. Kharma, Qusai Y. Shambour, Sumaya N. Al-Khatib

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 1971-1980, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.021458

    Abstract IPv6 protocol is the future of IP networks due to its large IP address capacity. One of the key consequences of this large capacity is that the IP protocol header has enlarged from 20-byte in IPv4 to 40-byte in IPv6. This will consume a considerable share of the bandwidth (BW) for VoIP applications, which produce small packets in tens of bytes only. To handle this issue, we have introduced an efficient technique to use the superfluous fields in the VoIP packet header, including the IPv6 header, to hold the voice data of the packet. This introduced technique is called the… More >

  • Open Access


    Energy and Bandwidth Based Link Stability Routing Algorithm for IoT

    D. Kothandaraman1, A. Balasundaram2,*, R. Dhanalakshmi3, Arun Kumar Sivaraman4, S. Ashokkumar5, Rajiv Vincent4, M. Rajesh4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.2, pp. 3875-3890, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020744

    Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming popular nowadays for collecting and sharing the data from the nodes and among the nodes using internet links. Particularly, some of the nodes in IoT are mobile and dynamic in nature. Hence maintaining the link among the nodes, efficient bandwidth of the links among the mobile nodes with increased life time is a big challenge in IoT as it integrates mobile nodes with static nodes for data processing. In such networks, many routing-problems arise due to difficulties in energy and bandwidth based quality of service. Due to the mobility and finite nature of the… More >

  • Open Access


    Investigation of Techniques for VoIP Frame Aggregation Over A-MPDU 802.11n

    Qasem M. Kharma*, Abdelrahman H. Hussein, Faris M. Taweel, Mosleh M. Abualhaj, Qusai Y. Shambour

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.31, No.2, pp. 869-883, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.020415

    Abstract The widespread and desirable features of IP and IEEE 802.11 networks have made these technologies a suitable medium for carrying voice over IP (VoIP). However, a bandwidth (BW) exploitation obstacle emerges when 802.11 networks are used to carry VoIP traffic. This BW exploitation obstacle is caused by the large 80-byte preamble size of the VoIP packet and a waiting time of 765 μs for each layer 2 VoIP frame. As a solution, IEEE 802.11n was consequently designed with a built-in layer 2 frame aggregation feature, but the adverse impact on the VoIP performance still needed to be addressed. Subsequent VoIP… More >

  • Open Access


    Improving Functionality of 2DOF Piezoelectric Cantilever for Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Magnets

    Junxiang Jiang1,2, Shaogang Liu1,*, Lifeng Feng3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.5, pp. 1287-1303, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015354

    Abstract This paper presents a 2DOF nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester for improving the efficiency of energy harvesting in low frequency range. The device consisted of an L-shaped piezoelectric cantilever with a magnet at the tip of the first beam and two external magnets on the pedestal. The distance between the magnets which generated nonlinear magnetic attraction was adjusted such that the system can exhibit monostable or bistable characteristics. First, the model of this piezoelectric energy harvester was established and the dynamic equation was derived based on the magnetic attractive force. Then, the nonlinear dynamic responses of the system subject to harmonic… More >

  • Open Access


    Reconfigurable Compact Wideband Circularly Polarised Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Shahid Khan1,*, Xin Cheng Ren2, Haider Ali3, Camel Tanougast1, Abdul Rauf4, Safdar Nawaz Khan Marwat5, Muhammad Rizwan Anjum6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2095-2109, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016811

    Abstract In this work, a novel compact wideband reconfigurable circularly polarised (CP) dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented. The L-shaped Dielectric resonator antenna is excited by an inverted question mark shaped feed. This arrangement of feed-line helps to generate two orthogonal modes inside the DR, which makes the design circularly polarised. A thin micro-strip line placed on the defected ground plane not only helps to generate a wideband response but also assist in the positioning of the two diode switches. These switches located at the left and right of the micro-strip line helps in performing two switching operations. The novel compact… More >

  • Open Access


    Down to Zero Size of VoIP Packet Payload

    Mosleh M. Abualhaj*, Qusai Y. Shambour, Abdelrahman H. Hussein, Qasem M. Kharma

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.1, pp. 1271-1283, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014928

    Abstract Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is widely used by companies, schools, universities, and other institutions. However, VoIP faces many issues that slow down its propagation. An important issue is poor utilization of the VoIP service network bandwidth, which results from the large header of the VoIP packet. The objective of this study is to handle this poor utilization of the network bandwidth. Therefore, this study proposes a novel method to address this large header overhead problem. The proposed method is called zero size payload (ZSP), which aims to reemploy and use the header information (fields) of the VoIP packet that… More >

  • Open Access


    Survey and Analysis of VoIP Frame Aggregation Methods over A-MSDU IEEE 802.11n Wireless Networks

    Mosleh M. Abualhaj1,*, Abdelrahman H. Hussein1, Manjur Kolhar2, Mwaffaq Abu AlHija1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.66, No.2, pp. 1283-1300, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.012991

    Abstract The IEEE 802.11n standard has provided prominent features that greatly contribute to ubiquitous wireless networks. Over the last ten years, voice over IP (VoIP) has become widespread around the globe owing to its low-cost or even free call rate. The combination of these technologies (VoIP and wireless) has become desirable and inevitable for organizations. However, VoIP faces a bandwidth utilization issue when working with 802.11 wireless networks. The bandwidth utilization is inefficient on the grounds that (i) 80 bytes of 802.11/RTP/UDP/IP header is appended to 10–730 bytes of VoIP payload and (ii) 765 µs waiting intervals follow each 802.11 VoIP… More >

  • Open Access


    An Improved TCP Vegas Model for the Space Networks of the Bandwidth Asymmetry

    Qixue Guan*, Yueqiu Jiang

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 773-781, 2020, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2020.010112

    Abstract It is known that congestion in the reverse direction happens in advance of the congestion in the forward direction due to the significant bandwidth asymmetry in the two directions of the space networks, especially in the satellite networks, which enables the TCP Vegas to enter the phase of the congestion avoidance blindly and reduce the throughput of the forward direction. To solve this problem, a congestion control model, TCP Vegas-DDA, which maintains the frequency of the acknowledgments in the reverse direction is proposed. The model sets the interval time between acknowledgments dynamically based on the variation of the queuing delay… More >

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